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The 22nd Cavalry Regiment ( also called 1st Indian - Texas
The 22nd Cavalry Regiment ( also called 1st Indian - Texas Regiment )was formed
by Colonel R. H. Taylor during the spring of 1862 with 873 men. The regiment was
assigned to W.R. Bradfute's, Flournoy's, W.H. King's, and J.E. Harrison's
Brigade in the Trans-Mississippi Department. In May, 1862, its force was down to
20 officers and 315 men,and it lost 1 killed, 9 wounded,and 1 missing at
Newtonia . Later it was dismounted,saw action in Arkansas and Louisiana, and in
March, 1865, contained 14 officers and 167 men. It was included in the surrender
on June 2nd.
The field officers were Colonels James G. Stevens and Robert H. Taylor, and
Lieutenant Colonels John A. Buck, William H. Johnson, Thomas Lewelling, George
W. Merrick, and Robert D. Stone.
Battles List for the 22nd Texas Cavalry.
Newtonia (Sept. 30th 1862)
Red River Campaign (March - May 1864)
Harrisonburg (March 2nd 1864)
Mansfield (April 8th 1864)
Pleasant Hill (April 9th 1864)
The 22nd Texas Cavalry (dismounted) was raised mainly in Hunt, Collin, Fannin
Counties and some men were from other N.E. Texas counties, as well as a number
of Indian troops. The 22nd Texas Cavalry (dismounted) regiment was at the battle
of Newtonia on Sept.30, 1862. After that engagement, Col. James G. Stevens,
commanding the 22nd Texas Cavalry, was charged with cowardice for leaving the
battlefield without sufficient cause.
The accuser of Col. Stevens was Col. John T. Coffee, who was in command of the
Missouri Cavalry. After the Newtonia engagement, Col. Coffee sent the horses of
the 22nd Texas Cavalry back to Texas because they were totally unsuitable as
cavalry mounts. At that time the 22nd Texas Cavalry became "dismounted", used as
infantry and was assigned to Polignac's Brigade. Col. Alexander's 34th Texas
Cavalry, also at Newtonia, was called "The Plowhorse Cavalry" and was later
Col. Stevens was found not guilty at courts martial and was returned to his
command. He later resigned and returned to Hunt County Texas because he admitted
that he was entirely unable to control his men. The reason for that was that
half of his troops were Chickasaw Indians and they were notoriously bad in
dicipline, poor horsemen and disorganized in action.
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SEPTEMBER 30, 1862
BATTLE OF NEWTONIA, CONFEDERATE REPORTS
This page contains the following Confederate reports concerning the battle of Newtonia:
* Report of Colonel Douglas H. Cooper, Commanding Division
* Report of Major J. M. Bryan, First Cherokee Battalion
* Report of Lt. Colonel Tandy Walker, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment
* Report of Lt. Colonel M. W. Buster, Indian Battalion
* Report of Colonel J. G. Stevens, First Texas Partisan Cavalry
* Report of Colonel T. C. Hawpe, Thirty-first Texas Cavalry
* Report of Colonel A. M. Alexander, Thirty-fourth Texas Cavalry
Report of Colonel J. G. Stevens, First Texas Partisan Cavalry
HEADQUARTERS ARMY IN THE FIELD,
Camp Elm Springs, Ark., October 13, 1862.
COLONEL: In obedience to your order of the 29th ultimo I marched the most of my regiment to Granby.
Early on the morning of the 30th, hearing heavy cannonading in the direction of Newtonia, I at once took up the line of march in the direction of that point. When near Newtonia I discovered the enemy extending in line from near Newtonia in a northerly direction near the timber. I was met by Captain Crisp with an order to charge the right flank of the enemy in double-quick time, which order I executed in colmnn of platoons, endeavoring to intercept and cut off their artillery. The enemy, after having fired a few rounds, retired with their artillery in great haste, leaving their infantry and cavalry to protect their retreat. Their cavalry soon giving way left the infantry exposed, and we captured some 80 prisoners, killing some 50 who refused to surrender. We pursued the enemy some 4 miles, capturing several guns, and were ably supported by the First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment, as well as a small portion of Colonel Shelby’s command. I received orders to march my men back to Camp Coffee. Before reaching Newtonia the enemy were re-enforced and opened a heavy cannonading upon my rear, which, however, was soon silenced by Captain Howell’s gallant battery.
My regiment remained in Newtonia until between 12 and 1 o’clock, when we were ordered out upon the enemy’s right flank, in company with Colonel Jeans’ regiment, to feel the position of the enemy, ascertain his strength, and draw him out. When within 300 yards of his right flank he opened fire upon Colonel Jeans, which was returned. The enemy was some 400 yards from my command when they fired upon me, which fire I did not return. At this time I discovered another column moving down upon my right, with one battery of four guns, endeavoring to cut me off from the main command. I immediately ordered a retrograde movement, which was executed in good order under a heavy fire from the artillery of the enemy without injury to my command. I immediately took position behind a rock fence, extending some 200 yards west from Newtonia, where the enemy poured a heavy fire from his artillery upon me for near an hour. I remained in this position until about 5 o’clock, when I was ordered to support the First Choctaw and Chickasaw Regiment with Colonel Folsom’s regiment in a charge upon the enemy, he retiring from the field pursued by the Choctaw regiment. I took position upon the left of Captain Howell’s battery, when darkness terminated the contest, the enemy having been driven entirely from the field.
The casualties in my command were not large, considering the fire to which they were exposed.
In obedience to orders, on the morning of the 4th instant I marched my regiment from Camp Coffee in the direction of Newtonia. After getting within about 2 miles of Newtonia I discovered the enemy in force in three directions, charging in the direction principally of Harmon’s, south of Newtonia, and near the edge of the timber. Finding that I was cut off from Newtonia, I made a flank movement to the left and went into the timber. After marching some 2 miles west I intercepted the trail of our forces who had retreated from Newtonia. I followed this trail some 1 1/2 miles, and took position to cover the rear of our train, which was then moving in the direction of Pineville. While at this point I sent back Captain Elliott, of Colonel Shelby’s command, to ascertain if the enemy were pursuing, and he reported that they had formed line of battle near the timber and were firing into it with artillery and small-arms. I was then relieved by Colonels Buster and Jeans and moved my command on in the direction of Pineville, overtaking the command near Pineville.
My loss on the 4th instant was Private John Riley, Company F, who was on picket at Jollification, and was either killed or taken prisoner. The number of horses killed and wounded will be duly reported.
I cannot close this report without saying that I am under many obligations both to the officers and men under my command for their gallant bearing and undaunted courage in the face of the enemy. I cannot particularize, for each seemed to vie with the other in acts of bravery and deeds of daring; but I must be permitted to recommend to your consideration Captain Crisp, who led the charge on the morning of the 30th. His gallant bearing and determined bravery won from men and officers the highest praise.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. G. STEVENS,
Colonel, Commanding Regiment Texas Cavalry
SOURCE: OR, Series I, Volume 13, Page 303-305.