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#1 May-19-2009 11:33:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4396

Translation by Tobias Evans

Tobias Evans was the son of Sam Evans, the New Jersey Lenape from David Brainerd's congregation and later Moravian helper.  Sam was murdered at Gnadenhuetten, and Tobias was one of just two boys to survive and make a daring escape from that massacre.  He learned to read and write at the Moravian mission schools, and often served as a translator, in his adult years, for missionaries who couldn't speak Lenape.  Two of his translations survive.  They are written in perfect Northern Unami, and I provide, below, an English word-for-word and free translation of the shorter of his two Delaware renderings.  Tobias was in and out of the mission towns--on and "off the wagon," his whole life.  In his later years, he left Ontario and joined the Delaware Tribe on their Kansas Reservation.  He remained a Christian throughout his life.  Whatever anyone thinks about the content of these sermons, there can be no doubt that the language in which they're written is a precious gift for all time.  This sermon is dated about 1802.


Michael’s  (Michael Jung’s) Sermon translated by Tobias (Evans)



      Pemauchsohalquonk wtenda laptonalgunacup neke wulamoe.  Jun undachqui kdanewo, matta undachqui lenehawanink woak matta menanschiwonink.

     Our-Savior he-then he-spoke-so-to-us at-that-time long-ago.  This this-way you-go, not this-way to-the-right-hand and not to-the-left-hand.

     Our Savior then spoke to us, long ago.  Go this way—not to the right and not to the left.     

   

Schachachki chela, nen undachquiwi elaptonetup, ne talli pichpemetonhetink; undachqui pommauchsowoagan hallamagamik. 

Surely {indeed}, that this-way as-he-spoke, that in in-the-prophets; this-way (is) life forever.

Indeed, to be sure, that is this way of which he spoke in the prophets; this way is life forever.



     Nanne eli kepnook petabtonachga li kakenanink, miguman wdammemensemall necama wdelgunacup, mauchsu gemilgehenap, enda pommauchsink.  Quajaqui necama elaptonetup:  luep:  Ni wemi pennauwik, guntschitsch pommauchsinewo, woak pejate Pemauchsohalquonk pemhakamikgek, kiluna elinaxiank, wemi wdellinaxineep kiluna elinaxiank, schuk ngutti matta, matta hattewi mattauchsowoagan necama hokenk. 

     That as us-likewise that-which-is-spoken-unto to to-ourselves, he-remembers-them his-children he he-said-to-us, one we-were-given, where there-is-life.  Still he as-he-spoke:  he-said:  Me all look-ye-at-me, thereby-you-will you-(will)-live, and when-he-comes the-Savior the-world-round-about, we as-we-appear, all he-appeared-so we as-we-appear, but one not, not it-is-not-there a-sin him in-himself.

     That is that which is spoken to us, too.  He remembers his children.  He said to us:  we were given one where there is life.  As he still spoke, he said:  All of you look at me, thereby you will live, and when our-Savior came into the world, he looked like we do, but not one sin is in him.



Juh—pemmetonhenep pommauchsowoaptonamik gettemaki machtauchsitschik, wdellapannil:  Schiwelendamook, woak wulistamook na pomauchsu aptonagan, wtelli laptonalanep woak kepena, petschi kakeyinanink, necama schuk undachqui hokenk schachachki pommauchsowoagan, matta a auwen nhitta ika pewi Gettanittowitink, gintsch necama hokenk li ate. 

Well-then!  He-preached-to-them the-word-of-life the-poor sinners, he-said-to-them:  Be-ye-sorry, and believe-ye-it that-one he-lives the-word, that-he spoke-so-to-them and us-too, hither in-ourselves, he only this-way in-himself (is) certain life, not could a-person skillfully there he-(could)-not-come to-the-Great-Spirit, unless him to-himself to when-He-goes.

Well then!  He preached the word of life to poor sinners.  He said to them:  Be sorry, and believe in that living word.  Thus, he spoke to them and to us, too—here, in our selves:  In him is the only way to certain life.  No one could come to God, unless he goes to him.



Nanne nuwentschi auwijehan necama gutchawuna, eli necama Pemauchsohalquenk.  Necama schuk etasikup kiluna quitahemgussowoagannena, woak nanne elaptonalatup Enschel nel Josephall, nelama ju pejaque:  Natsch ne li wihillan Jesus, natsch pommauchsohalat wtellenapejumall untschi mattauchsowoagannowawink.

So therefore {however} him we-come-to-him, as he (is) our-Savior.  He only (is) that-which-was-put-down our our-help, and that what-he-spoke-so-to-him the-angel that Joseph, not-yet here when-he-comes:  That-one-will then this he-name-him Jesus, that-one-will he-(will)-save-them his-people from from-sin.

So, therefore, we come to him, because he is our-Savior.  He alone is that which was put down for our help, and as the angel spoke to Joseph, before he came here:  He will name him Jesus.  He will save his people from sin. 



     Woak allowi li penauwelendamanque Pemauchsohalquonk elaptonetup, wtelli ahoatamenneep Gettanittowit pemhakamigek nanne wtelli mekeneep, na eli mauchsilitschil Quisall, auwentsch wulistawate mattawonglowi schuktsch hallamagamik pommauchsu. 

     And more here when-we-consider-it the-Savior what-he-spoke, that-He loved-it the-Great-Spirit the-world-round-about so that-He gave-him-away, that-one as he-is-His-one His-son, who-will if-he-believes-(in)-him he-(will)-not-die but-will forever he-(will)-live.

     And when we further consider what the Savior spoke:  That God loved the world, so that He gave that one, His only son, who, if one will believe in him, he will not die, but will live forever.



Juke metschi knemhummena wendachqui a lochwejank, enda pommauchsijank, woak juke a wentschi pennauwelendamank pommauchsijank, woak juke a wentschi pennauwelendamank kechitti, alalogetup kiluna untschi pommauchsowoagannena, nachene wtelli paneep mauwi etschihillaneep kakeyinanink, etschihillatup kikeyinanink, gulangundhalgunacup li Gettanittowitink eli Gettanittowit schachachgauchsowoaganowid, nanne woak wemi wtelli witahemguneen, petschi Gettanittowit elinquechink enda machtando matta a nhitta koecu petschi laptonek, schuk wunihhillatamen wtelli wuntschi ktendguneen wschachachgauchsowoagan eli necama gehella schachachki Tegauwontowit na Gettanittowit hokenk hattelopannil wemi kmattauchsowoagannennanall, woak amachachelendanop wemi kiluna untschi kdelsowoagannenanall, techi mallasche necama wdellsineshanni, wemi sogahellep necama pilhik omocum. 

Now already we-see-it {that-way} should we-so-walk, where we-live, and now should therefore we-consider-it we-live, and now should therefore we-consider-it a-little, he-continually-worked-so us for our-life, even that-he came went-and mediated for-ourselves, he-mediated for-ourselves, he-gave-us-peace toward toward-the-Great-Spirit as the-Great-Spirit He-is-upright, so also all he-thus he-helped-us, hither the-Great-Spirit before-His-Face when the-Devil not could skillfully a-thing hereto he-(could)-not-speak-so, but he-owned-it that-he for {he-paid-it-for-us} his-righteousness as he indeed surely (is) the-Gentle-Spirit that Great-Spirit on-himself they-were-there all our-sins, and he-suffered all our for our-acts, utterly like he he-has-done-so, all he-spilled-it his pure his-blood.

Already, we now see that way we should walk, where we live; and, therefore, we should now consider (how) we live, and now, therefore, should we consider it a little:   He worked for our lives, continually—he even went and mediated for us.  He mediated for us, he gave us peace, regarding God.  As God is upright, so also he helped us;  hither, in the presence of God, when the Devil could not speak anything skillfully to (Him), because he (Jesus) possessed something that he paid for us—his righteousness, because indeed, he is surely the Gentle Spirit, that Great Spirit on whom were all our sins, and he suffered for all our actions, utterly, as he has.  He spilled all his pure blood.



Gohan psacquitehop, mekesall aschtetehasikink, wtenda schehellaneep tetauwiwi li awossagame woak pemhakamigek woak nischa memachtapewitschik, nanne lelawi schehellanep, wentschi woak nanne witachkimgussitup nil memachtschilissitschi woak meschakanop untschi wemi kiluna pallawewoagannena woak schaschquewachgitehop kmattauchsowoaganenna, wemi kschaptonaltowoagan necama hokenk hattelop, woak eli m’schacanit guntschi kigeguneen eli wemi kiluna memekschiangup ksasechchwehenacup, nan Nihillaluet, necama hokenk hattelopannil (T., -pannik) kmattauchsowoaganenna; newentschi Gettanittowit wdallaptonetup(?) pechpemetonhesink:  Schachachgauchsit ndallogacan, schachachgauchsohalawall cheli, eli necama amandangup mattauchsowoagannowawall.

Yes he-was-crucified, {the-Lamb} on-the-Cross, where-he was-hung between towards Heaven and the-world-round-about and two wicked-men, so in-the-middle he-hung, so-that also so he-was-counted-with-them those evil-doers and he-was-wounded for all our our-transgressions and {he-crushed-it} our-sin, every verbal-abuse him on-himself it-was-there, and as he-is-wounded us-thereby he-heals-us as all we we-who-were-sheep we-were-scattered, that-one the-Lord, he in-himself they-were-there our-sin(s); and-therefore the-Great-Spirit He-spoke-of-him by-the-prophet:  He-who-is-upright My-servant, he-makes-them-upright many, as he he-felt-them their-sins.

Yes, the Lamb was crucified on the cross, where he was hung between Heaven and Earth, and two wicked men.  Thus, he hung, in the middle, so that he was counted among those evil doers, and was wounded for all our transgressions, and he crushed our sin.  Every verbal abuse was heaped upon him, and because he was wounded he, thereby, heals us, all of us who were scattered sheep.  Our sins were there, in the Lord, and thereof God spoke of him by the prophet:  My upright servant makes many upright, for he felt their sins.



Nahanne ktelli nemeneen na schachachkiwi Pemauchsohalquonk mamchachwelendamoagan woak wtangelowoagan, guntschi lappi gischi wuliechtaguneen Gettanittowitink, woak wtelli mechenhenep kmattauchsowoaganenna, necama nihillatschi pilhik omoocum.

So-it-is that-we we-see-it that righteous Savior his-suffering and his-death, us-thereby again finishes he-(finishes)-making-us-good in-the-Great-Spirit, and he-thus paid-dearly-for-it our-sin, he himself pure his-blood.

So it is that we see the suffering and death of our righteous Savior, whereby, he finishes making us good in God, again; and, that he paid dearly for our sin, (by) his own pure blood.



     Eli Gettanittowit achpitawatup nel Christall, na wuliechtagup pemhakamigek.  Juke penna kdelaptonalgehhenacup Gettanittowit wdaptonagan, kiluna gettemaki mattauchsid, wtellitsch wtachaneen Pemauchsohalquonk ktendatsch pommauchsineen.

     As the-Great-Spirit He-abided-in-him that-one the-Christ, that-one he-made-it-good the-world-round-about.  Now look it-was-spoken-to-us the-Great-Spirit His-word, we poor sinner(s), that-him-will we-join-him the-Savior where-we-will we-(will)-live.

     Because God abided in Christ, He rectified the world.  Now, look!  God’s word was spoken to us;  that we poor sinners will join the Savior, where we shall live.



     Schuk husca alowi neke emandangik woak wewoataquik wtelli machtauchsinewo, nel eli latup:  Undachaak quesquitehoqueek kmattauchsowoaganowa, kmachgamohhemmotsch alachimoagan talli ktschitschanguwawink, newentschi mechi achgettemagelid Pemauchsohalquonk gehella ne eli wtachanque ne li schachachki kmattauchsowoaganena nihillatamanque. 

     But very-much more of-late those-who-feel-it and those-who-know-it they-thus they-sin, that-one as he-said-to-them:  Come-ye-here {lay-ye-it-down} your-sin, you-will-find-it rest in in-your-souls, and-therefore great he-shows-mercy the-Savior indeed that as when-we-join-him that towards surely our-sin when-we-own-them.

     But very much more, of late, those who feel this and know it, they commit sin.  As that one said to them:  Come here!  Lay down your sin!  You will find rest in your souls. (And therefore the Savior shows great mercy, indeed, as when we join him toward that end, when we have certain sin.   



Eli Pemauchsohalquonk shaki peschokunk wgoktomagelowoaganink, nek wdenda nemeneen woak amandamaneen, ktelli machtauchsineen, ktelli a matta nhitta witahemawuneen nihillatschi kakeyina, nanne schuk mejauhok Pemauchsohalquonk wgoktomagelowoagan gundauchsineen nahanne guntschi ikali gulusineen, nel elaptoneep Pemauchsohalquonk wulapensid gettemaki wtschitschank alod knihillatamen awossagame wsakimawoaganall, nall jun naga Paulall elaptonalquonkup, schachachgauchsowoagan wulangundowoagan, litehewoaganink woak wulelendamoagan welsit metschitschank.

As the-Savior so-long {he-brings-us} in-his-mercy, those when-we we-see-it and we-feel-it, that-we we-sin, that-we could not skillfully we-(could)-not-help-them ourselves ourselves, that only {it-is-right} the-Savior his-mercy we-live-for so-it-is we-thereby thither we-are-good, that-one as-he-spoke the-Savior he-blessed the-poor soul for you-own-it Heaven his-kingdom, then here that-late Paul as-he-spoke-to-us, righteousness peace, in-thought and gladness the-Holy Spirit.

Because the Savior brings us under his mercy, for so long, then, when we see and feel that we commit sin, we could not cleverly help ourselves.  It is only right, that we live by the Savior’s mercy.  So it is, that thereby are we good.  As the Savior spoke, he blessed the poor soul, for you possess Heaven, his-kingdom.  And this, as Paul spoke to us:  Righteousness, peace, in thought. Joy (in) the Holy Spirit.



     Ne schachachgapewi welsittank, na wtelli achpitawon Pemauchsohalquonkunk, nall nan eli hattek wulangundowoagan wdehenk, nall nan wulamallsowi lehellechewoagan, pennachend wemi auwenil wingi milat Pemauchsohalquonk memajauchsowitschi.

     That righteous believer, that-one he-thus abides-in-him in-the-Savior, then that-one as it-is-there peace in-his-heart, then that-one healthily living, {he-is-looked-upon} every person willingly he-gives-it-to-him the-Savior each-one.

     The righteous believer abides in the Savior, because that one has peace in his heart.  That one is living healthy.  All who are looked upon, our Savior gives that to each one.



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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#2 May-20-2009 12:19:am

Chevy
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Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

Thank you, sschkaak. It's awesome to see it, and to read it. And it's an awesome sermon, because it's all of Christ, not about human effort. I have read that that is one reason the Lenape/ Delaware/Mohicans also? , etc were open to the Moravians, if I have this right - because it / they so told about the price Jesus paid, and put less demands on people, or less "knowing what to say". Oh one of the books about the Mohicans, right at the moment can't remember exactly which one.
Anyway, thank you so much for posting this, and about Sam and Tobias Evans.

Martha

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#3 May-20-2009 07:11:am

tree hugger
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Registered: May-12-2006
Posts: 11122

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

Thanks sschkaak! smile
It would be amazing if a speaker recorded this.

Martha
If you remember the name of that book, let me know.

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#4 May-20-2009 08:02:am

Chevy
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Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

Martha
If you remember the name of that book, let me know.

I will. I have it here, either packed or unpacked. I think it's the first book I bought about the Mohicans, and a Dunn book, but I'll look to be sure. When I find it, I'll put the quote and source.

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#5 May-20-2009 08:22:am

Chevy
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Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

I do believe it's The Mohican World 1680-1750 by Shirley W. Dunn.
In Chapter 9 "Moravian Missions to the Mohicans" at the beginning of the Chapter there is the quote: "O! we have never in our life heard that, we only hear always, you must keep the Sabbath, not get drunk, and if we don't do them, God would be angry with us, now we hear that we can get all for nothing, when we only learn to believe and get Jesus's Blood in our Hearts"

Chapter 9 "Moravian sermons centered around the sacrifice of Jesus for mankind and emphasized his blood, his wounds, and his sufferings. Music was ever present in Moravian religious service, every celebration, every form of work had it's special lyrics, accompanied by musical instruments. Even a knock on the door might bring an outburst of song announcing the presence of visitors."

According to the book, there was resistance by some Mohicans, to a change in beliefs, but altho I can't find the exact quote right now, the book gave me the idea, and I do think it says, that the reason the Moravians were embraced by the Mohicans,  was that they (the Moravians) preached Jesus so, and put less demands on the Mohicans, than other "denominations", for lack of another word, did.

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#6 May-20-2009 08:23:am

Chevy
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Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

It would be amazing if a speaker recorded this.

Yes it would, tree hugger. I'd love to hear it spoken. coolcool

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#7 May-20-2009 09:35:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4396

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

Should have cited the source of this sermon.  This one and the other one are both among the manuscripts at the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, Box 3376, Folder 1, Item 1.

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#8 Dec-12-2009 10:58:pm

Chevy
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Registered: Aug-01-2007
Posts: 1577

Re: Translation by Tobias Evans

It's amazing to me, that they survived all they survived, and remained faithful Christians.  They had some perseverance.

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