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#51 Jun-12-2014 10:02:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Registered: Sep-11-2007
Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Why does Part 8 refer to Lesson 10? Was this lesson previously two?


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#52 Jun-13-2014 05:55:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Sorry about this, Paul.  This entire lesson on TA Theme 2 verbs should have been numbered as Lesson 10.  I have edited the eight parts to reflect this, now.  I think I originally had the first lesson listed as "Introduction," and Lesson 2 as Lesson 1.  In any case, it should be correct, now.

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#53 Jun-13-2014 06:06:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 11:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 3, PART 1

In this lesson, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 3 verbs.  The action of these verbs is "direct," {subject > verbal action > object}.  ALL these verbs have a "subject" which is "second person," and an "object" which is "first person."  The Theme Sign is the letter "-i."  ALL TA Theme 3 verbs are in the Objective State.

Let's conjugate the verb stem, "schingal-" ('hate').


TA THEME 3 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingali   "you (sg.) hate me"

kschingalihhenna   "you (sg. or pl.) hate us"

kschingalihhimmo   "you (pl.) hate me"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwi   "you (sg.) don't hate me"

matta kschingaliwihhenna   "you (sg. or pl.) don't hate us"

matta kschingaliwihhimmo   "you (pl.) don't hate me"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalihump   "you (sg.) hated me"

kschingalihhennap   "you (sg. or pl.) hated us"

kschingalihhimmoap   "you (pl.) hated me"

PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwihump   "you (sg.) didn't hate me"

matta kschingaliwihhennap   "you (sg. or pl.) didn't hate us"

matta kschingaliwihhimmoap   "you (pl.) didn't hate me"


IMPERFECT TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalimsa   "you (sg.) have hated me"       
                                                             
Kschingalihhummennooksa   "you (sg. or pl.) have hated us"

kschingalihhimmooksa   "you (pl.) have hated me"


IMPERFECT TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwimsa   "you (sg.) haven't hated me"

matta kschingaliwihhummennooksa   "you (sg. or pl.) haven't hated us"

matta kschingaliwihhimmooksa   "you (pl.) haven't hated me"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalitsch   "you (sg.) will hate me"

kschingalihhennatsch   "you (sg. or pl.) will hate us"

kschingalihhimmoatsch   "you (pl.) will hate me"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwitsch   "you (sg.) won't hate me"

matta kschingaliwihhennatsch   "you (sg. or pl.) won't hate us"

matta kschingaliwihhimmoatsch   "you (pl.) won't hate me"


TA THEME 3 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, SUBORDINATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalin   "you (sg.) hate me"

kschingalineen   "you (sg. or pl.) hate us"

kschingalinewo   "you (pl.) hate me"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwun   "you (sg.) don't hate me"

matta kschingaliwuneen   "you (sg. or pl.) don't hate us"

matta kschingaliwunewo   "you (pl.) don't hate me"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalinep   "you (sg.) hated me"

kschingalineenep   "you (sg. or pl.) hated us"

kschingalinewoap   "you (pl.) hated me"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwunep   "you (sg.) didn't hate me"

matta kschingaliwuneenep   "you (sg. or pl.) didn't hate us"

matta kschingaliwunewoap   "you (pl.) didn't hate me"


IMPERFECT TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalinesa   "you (sg.) have hated me"

kschingalineenesa   "you (sg. or pl.) have hated us"

kschingalinewoasa   "you (pl.) have hated me"


IMPERFECT TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwunesa   "you (sg.) haven't hated me"

matta kschingaliwuneenesa   "you (sg. or pl.) haven't hated us"

matta kschingaliwunewoasa   "you (pl.) haven't hated me"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kschingalintsch   "you (sg.) will hate me"

kschingalineentsch   "you (sg. or pl.) will hate us"

kschingalinewoatsch   "you (pl.) will hate me"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta kschingaliwuntsch   "you (sg.) won't hate me"

matta kschingaliwuneentsch   "you (sg. or pl.) won't hate us"

matta kschingaliwunewoatsch   "you (pl.) won't hate me"

In the next part of this lesson, we will deal with the TA Theme 3 verbs in the Conjunct Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#54 Jun-13-2014 06:08:am

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 11:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 3, PART 2

In this part, we will begin to cover the Transitive Animate Theme 3 verbs, in the Conjunct Order. All these forms should look familiar to you, since the suffixes added to the Theme 3 Theme Sign, "i," are exactly the same as those used for Animate Intransitive verbs.

In conjugating our example verb stem, "wulistaw-" ('believe somebody'), all five Modes of the Conjunct Order will be shown, in this order:  Conjunct Indicative ("why"), Changed Conjunct ("as"), Subjunctive ("if"), Changed Subjunctive ("when"), Participle ("who").


TA THEME 3 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch wulistawijan?   "Why do you (sg.) believe me?

Quatsch wulistawijenk?   "Why do you (sg. or pl.) believe us?

Quatsch wulistawijeek   "Why do you (pl.) believe me?

eli wulistawijan   "as you (sg.) believe me"

eli wulistawijenk   "as you (sg. or pl.) believe us"

eli wulistawijeek   "as you (pl.) believe me"

wulistawijane   "if you (sg.) believe me"

wulistawijenke   "if you (sg. or pl.) believe us"

wulistawijeque   "if you (pl.) believe me"

weelsittawijane   "when you (sg.) believe me"

weelsittawijenke   "when you (sg. or pl.) believe us"

weelsittawijeque   "when you (pl.) believe me"

{Note the loss of the "i" of the verb stem, when this word undergoes "initial change." It's one of those phonetic changes which must be learned by experience. Also, as you know, this Changed Subjunctive Mode can be expressed, alternatively, by using the preverb "enda" ('when').  When doing that, "initial change" shifts to the preverb, so the forms look just like those in the Subjuncive Mode.}

weelsittawijan   "you (sg.) who believe me"

weelsittawijenk   "you (sg. or pl.) who believe us"

weelsittawijeek   "you (pl.) who believe me"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch taku wulistawiwaan?   "Why don't you (sg.) believe me?"

Quatsch taku wulistawiwenk?   "Why don't you (sg. or pl.) believe us?"

Quatsch taku wulistawiweek?   "Why don't you (pl.) believe me"

eli taku wulistawiwaan   "as you (sg.) don't believe me"

eli taku wulistawiwenk   "as you (sg. or pl.) don't believe us"

eli taku wulistawiweek   "as you (pl.) don't believe me"

taku wulistawiwane   "if you (sg.) don't believe me"

taku wulistawiwenke   "if you (sg. or pl.) don't believe us"

taku wulistawiweque    "if you (pl.) don't believe me"

taku weelsittawiwane   "when you (sg.) don't believe me"

taku weelsittawiwenke   "when you (sg. or pl.) don't believe us"

taku weelsittawiweque   "when you (pl.) don't believe me"

taku weelsittawiwaan   "you (sg.) who do not believe me"

taku weelsittawiwenk   "you (sg. or pl.) who do not believe us"

taku weelsittawiweek   "you (pl.) who do not believe me"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch wulistawijanup   "Why did you (sg.) believe me"

Quatsch wulistawijenkup   "Why did you (sg. or pl.) believe us"

Quatsch wulistawijekup   "Why did you (pl.) believe me"

eli wulistawijanup   "as you (sg.) believed me"

eli wulistawijenkup   "as you (sg. or pl.) believed us"

eli wulistawijekup   "as you (pl.) believed me"

wulistawijaanpanne   "if you (sg.) believed me"

wulistawijenkpanne   "if you (sg. or pl.) believed us"

wulistawijeekpanne   "if you (pl.) believed me"

weelsittawijaanpanne   "when you (sg.) believed me"

weelsittawijenkpanne   "when you (sg. or pl.) believed us"

weelsittawijeekpanne   "when you (pl.) believed me"

weelsittawijanup   "you (sg.) who believed me"

weelsittawijenkup   "you (sg. or pl.) who believed us"

weelsittawijeekup   "you (pl.) who believed me"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

For these forms, merely change the "j" to "w," in the above Preterite Tense, Positive Forms.

Example:  taku weelsittawiweekup "you (pl.) who did not believe me"

We will complete this lesson, next time, in Part 3.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#55 Jun-13-2014 06:11:am

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 11:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 3, PART 3

In this Part, we'll cover Transitive Animate Theme 3 verbs, in the Imperfect Tense and Future Tense of the Conjunct Order; and, the Imperative Order modes.

For our conjugations, we'll use the verb stem, "najum-" ('carry somebody on the back').  As with the last Part, all five Modes of the Conjunct Order (Conjunct Indicative, Changed Conjunct, Subjunctive, Changed Subjunctive, Participle) will be illustrated, in order.


TA THEME 3 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, IMPERFECT TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch najumijannesa?   "Why have you (sg.) carried me (on your back)?"

Quatsch najumijenksa?   "Why have you (sg. or pl.) carried us (on your back[s])?"

Quatsch najumijeeksa?   "Why have you (pl.) carried me (on your backs)?"

eli najumijannesa   "as you (sg.) have carried me (on your back)"

eli najumijenksa   "as you (sg. or pl.) have carried us (on your back[s])"

eli najumijeeksa   "as you (pl.) have carried me (on your backs)"

najumijanneshanne   "if you (sg.) have carried me (on your back)"

najumijenkshanne   "if you (sg. or pl.) have carried us (on your back[s])"

najumijeekshanne   "if you (pl.) have carried me (on your backs)"

nejumijanneshanne   "when you (sg.) have carried me (on your back)"

nejumijenkshanne   "when you (sg. or pl.) have carried us (on your back[s])"

nejumijeekshanne   "when you (pl.) have carried me (on your backs)"

nejumijannesa   "you (sg.) who have carried me (on your back)"

nejumijenksa   "you (sg. or pl.) who have carried us (on your back[s])"

nejumijeeksa   "you (pl.) who have carried me (on your backs)"


IMPERFECT TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

The Negative forms of the Imperfect Tense can be made simply by changing the Positive Form letter "j" to "w."

Example:  Quatsch taku najumiwannesa?   "Why haven't you (sg.) carried me (on your back)?"

Example:  taku nejumiweekshanne   "when you (pl.) haven't carried me (on your backs)"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch najumijantsch?   "Why will you (sg.) carry me (on your back)?"

Quatsch najumijenktsch?   "Why will you (sg. or pl.) carry us (on your back[s])?"

Quatsch najumijeektsch?   "Why will you (pl.) carry me (on your backs)?"

eli najumijantsch   "as you (sg.) will carry me (on your back)"

eli najumijenktsch   "as you (sg. or pl.) will carry us (on your back[s])"

eli najumijeektsch   "as you (pl.) will carry me (on your backs)"

najumijannetsch   "if you (sg.) will carry me (on your back)"

najumijenketsch   "if you (sg. or pl.) will carry us (on your back[s])"

najumijequetsch   "if you (pl.) will carry me (on your backs)"

enda najumijannetsch   "when you (sg.) will carry me (on your back)"

enda najumijenketsch   "when you (sg. or pl.) will carry us (on your back[s])"

enda najumijequetsch   "when you (pl.) will carry me (on your backs)

nejumijantsch   "you (sg.) who will carry me (on your back)"

nejumijenktsch   "you (sg. or pl.) who will carry us (on your back[s])"

nejumijeektsch   "you (pl.) who will carry me (on your backs)"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

The Negative forms are made simply by changing the Positive Form letter "j" to "w."

Example:  eli taku najumiwenktsch "as you (sg. or pl.) won't carry us (on your back[s])"

Example:  taku nejumiwantsch "you (sg.) who won't carry me (on your back)"


IMPERATIVE ORDER, ORDINARY IMPERATIVE MODE

Pennawil - "Look {you (sg.)} at me."

Pennawik - "Look {you (pl.)} at me."

Pennawineen - "Look {you (sg. or pl.)} at us."


IMPERATIVE ORDER, PROHIBITIVE MODE 

Katschi pennawihan - "Don't look {you (sg.)} at me."

Katschi pennawihek - "Don't look {you (pl.)} at me."

Katschi pennawihenk - "Don't look {you (sg.) or (pl.)} at us."


IMPERATIVE ORDER, FUTURE IMPERATIVE MODE 

Pennawime - "Look {you (sg.)} at me" [at some particular time in the future].

Pennawimowe - "Look {you (pl.)} at me" [at some particular time in the future].

This concludes Lesson 11.  In the next Lesson, we will deal with the TA Theme 4 verbs.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-13-2014 09:10:am)

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#56 Jun-13-2014 12:47:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 12:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 4, PART 1

In this lesson, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 4 verbs.  Like Theme 2 verbs, the action of the singular form of these verbs is "inverse" {object < verbal action < subject}.  ALL these verbs have a "subject" which is "first person," and an "object" which is "second person."  The Theme Sign is the letter, "-l."  ALL Theme 4 verbs are in the Objective State.

We will conjugate the verb stem, "wangome-" ('greet somebody' or 'salute somebody').


TA THEME 4 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kwangomel   "I greet you (sg.)"

kwangomelhenna   "we greet you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomelhummo   "I greet you (pl.)"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowi   "I do not greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowihhenna   "we do not greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowihummo   "I do not greet you (pl.)"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kwangomelhump   "I greeted you (sg.)"

kwangomelhennap   "we greeted you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomelhummoap   "I greeted you (pl.)"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowihump   "I did not greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowihhennap   "we did not greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowihummoap   "I did not greet you (pl.)"


IMPERFECT ASPECT

There are no known Imperfect Tense forms recorded for TA Theme 4 verbs.


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kwangomeltsch   "I will greet you (sg.)"

kwangomelhennatsch   "we will greet you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomelhummoatsch   "I will greet you (pl.)"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowitsch   "I won't greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowihhennatsch   "we won't greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowihhummoatsch   "I won't greet you (pl.)"


TA THEME 4 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, SUBORDINATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kwangomellen   "I greet you (sg.)"

kwangomelleneen   "we greet you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomellenewo   "I greet you (pl.)"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowun   "I do not greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowuneen   "we do not greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowunewo   "I do not greet you (pl.)"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSTIVE FORM

kwangomellenep   "I greeted you (sg.)"

kwangomelleneenep   "we greeted you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomellenewoap   "I greeted you (pl.)"

PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowunep   "I did not greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowunenep   "we did not greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowunewoap   "I did not greet you (pl.)"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

kwangomellentsch   "I will greet you (sg.)"

kwangomelleneentsch   "we will greet you (sg. or pl.)"

kwangomellenewoatsch   "I will greet you (pl.)"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta kwangomellowuntsch   "I will not greet you (sg.)"

atta kwangomellowuneentsch   "we will not greet you (sg. or pl.)"

atta kwangomellowunewoatsch   "I will not greet you (pl.)"


In the next part of this lesson, we will deal with the TA Theme 4 verbs in the Conjunct Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#57 Jun-13-2014 12:49:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 12:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 4, PART 2

In this part, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 4 verbs, in the Conjunct Order.  As with the Theme 3 verbs, the suffixes added to the Theme Sign ("l" for Theme 4) are the same as those used for AI verbs.

We will conjugate the verb stem, "petekhammau-" ('write to somebody').  Note that verb stems ending in "-au" change the "au" sound to "o," when followed by the Theme 4 Theme Sign, "l."

All five Modes of the Conjunct Order will be shown, in the usual order:  Conjunct Indicative ("why"), Changed Conjunct ("as"), Subjunctive ("if"), Changed Subjunctive ("when"), Participle ("who").


TA THEME 4 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch petekhammolan?   "Why do I write to you (sg.)?"

Quatsch petekhammolenk?   "Why do we write to you (sg. or pl.)?"

Quatsch petekhammoleek?   "Why do I write to you (pl.)?"

eli petekhammolan   "as I write to you (sg.)"

eli petekhammolenk   "as we write to you (sg. or pl.)"

eli petekhammoleek   "as I write to you (pl.)"

petekhammolanne   "if I write to you (sg.)"

petekhammolenke   "if we write to you (sg. or pl.)"

petekhammoleque   "if I write to you (pl.)"

enda petekhammolanne   "when I write to you (sg.)"

enda petekhammolenke   "when we write to you (sg. or pl.)"

enda petekhammoleque   "when I write to you (pl.)"

petekhammolan   "I who write to you (sg.)"

petekhammolenk   "we who write to you (sg. or pl.)"

petekhammoleek   "I who write to you (pl.)"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch taku petekhammolowan?   "Why don't I write to you (sg.)?"

Quatsch taku petekhammolowenk?   "Why don't we write to you (sg. or pl.)?"

Quatsch taku petekhammoloweek?   "Why don't I write to you (pl.)?"

eli taku petekhammolowan   "as I do not write to you (sg.)"

eli taku petekhammolowenk   "as we do not write to you (sg. or pl.)"

eli taku petekhammoloweek   "as I do not write to you (pl.)"

taku petekhammolowanne   "if I don't write to you (sg.)"

taku petekhammolowenke   "if we don't write to you (sg. or pl.)"

taku petekhammoloweque   "if I don't write to you (pl.)"

enda taku petekhammolowanne   "when I don't write to you (sg.)"

enda taku petekhammolowenke    "when we don't write to you (sg. or pl.)"

enda taku petekhammoloweque    "when I don't write to you (pl.)"

taku petekhammolowan   "I who do not write to you (sg.)"

taku petekhammolowenk   "we who do not write to you (sg. or pl.)"

taku petekhammoloweek   "I who do not write to you (pl.)"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch petekhammolannup?   "Why did I write to you (sg.)?"

Quatsch petekhammolenkup?   "Why did we write to you (sg. or pl.)?"

Quatsch petekhammoleekup? "  Why did I write to you (pl.)?"

eli petekhammolannup   "as I wrote to you (sg.)"

eli petekhammolenkup   "as we wrote to you (sg. or pl.)"

eli petekhammoleekup   "as I wrote to you (pl.)"

petekhammolanpanne   "if I wrote to you (sg.)"

petekhammolenkpanne   "if we wrote to you (sg. or pl.)"

petekhammoleekpanne   "if I wrote to you (pl.)"

enda petekhammolanpanne   "when I wrote to you (sg.)"

enda petekhammolenkpanne   "when we wrote to you (sg. or pl.)"

enda petekhammoleekpanne   "when I wrote to you (pl.)"

petekhammolannup   "I who wrote to you (sg.)"

petekhammolenkup   "we who wrote to you (sg. or pl.)"

petekhammoleekup   "I who wrote to you (pl.)"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

For these forms, simply insert "-ow-" between the Theme Sign ("l") and the following suffix of the Positive Form verbs, just given.

Example:  eli taku petekhammolowenkup   "as we didn't write to you (sg. or pl.)"

Example:  taku petekhammolowannup    "I who didn't write to you (sg.)"


FUTURE TENSE

The Future Tense of both Positive and Negative Forms is made, as usual, by merely adding the Future Marker, "-tsch," to the end of the Unspecifed Tense forms.

Example:  Quatsch petekhammoleektsch?   "Why will I write to you (pl.)?"

Example:  petekhammolanetsch    "if I will write to you (sg.)"

{NOTE: An important exception is made in the formation of Theme 4 verbs which have stems ending in the letter, "-l."  In these cases, the Theme 4 Theme Sign ("l") merges with the "l" of the verb stem, and a preceeding vowel is shortened, if it is a long vowel.

Example:  mil- ('give something to somebody').  Here, we would see forms like "millan" ('I who give it to you (sg.)'), and "millenke" ('if we give it to you (sg. or pl.)').  These can be learned through experience!  There aren't many.}

This ends Lesson 12.

The next Lesson will deal with the Transitive Inanimate verbs--our FINAL verb form.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#58 Jun-14-2014 10:00:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 13:  TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERBS, PART 1

In this Lesson, we will cover the Transitive Inanimate verbs.  These verbs have animate subjects and inanimate third person objects.  In this Part, we will deal with the conjugation of TI verbs, in the Absolute State of the Independent Order.  (Remember that the "Absolute State" forms ALL have an INDEFINITE OBJECT, which may be singular or plural.)

The Transitive Inanimate verbs have three Theme Signs; however, the action is "direct" in ALL of them (subject > verbal action > object).  There are NO "inverse" forms; therefore, we needn't illustrate the three Theme Signs separately.  The Theme 1 Theme Sign is "-amm-" or "-umm-."  The Theme 2 Theme Sign is "-oo-" or "-au-."  The Theme 3 Theme Sign is "NOTHING."  That is, the verbal suffixes are added directly to the verb stem, with no intevening Theme Sign.

We will use the most common Theme Sign ("-amm-") in the following paradigms.  The verb stem used will be "pend-" ('hear').


TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, ABSOLUTE STATE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendam   "I hear something" (or "some things")

kpendam   "you (sg.) hear something" (or "some things")

pendam   "he (or "she") hears something" (or "some things")

mbendammohhenna   "we (excl.) hear something" (or "some things")

kpendammohhenna   "we (incl.) hear something" (or "some things")

kpendammohhummo   "you (pl.) hear something" (or "some things")

pendammook   "they hear something" (or "some things")


ABSOLUTE STATE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta mbendammowi   "I don't hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowi   "you (sg.) don't hear something" (or "some things")

atta pendammowi   "he (or "she") doesn't hear something" (or "some things")

atta mbendammowihhenna   "we (excl.) don't hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowihhenna   "we (incl.) don't hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowihhimmo   "you (pl.) don't hear something" (or "some things")

atta pendammowiwak   "they don't hear something" (or "some things")


PRETERITE TENSE, ABSOLUTE STATE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendammohump   "I heard something" (or "some things")

kpendammohump   "you (sg.) heard something" (or "some things")

pendammoop   "he (or "she") heard something" (or "some things")

mbendammohhennakup   "we (excl.) heard something" (or "some things")

kpendammohhennakup   "we (incl.) heard something" (or "some things")

kpendammohhummoakup   "you (pl.) heard something" (or "some things")

pendammookup   "they heard something" (or "some things")


PRETERITE TENSE, ABSOLUTE STATE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta mbenammowihump   "I did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowihump   "you (sg.) did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta pendammowip   "he (or "she") did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta mbendammowihhennakup   "we (excl.) did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowihhennakup   "we (incl.) did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta kpendammowihhimmoakup   "you (pl.) did not hear something" (or "some things")

atta pendammowiwakup   "they did not hear something" (or "some things")


FUTURE TENSE, ABSOLUTE STATE

Simply add the future marker, "-tsch," to the Unspecified Tense forms, inserting the euphonic connective vowel, "-o-" after forms ending in "-m."

Example:  mbendammotsch "I will hear something" (or "some things")

Example:  atta pendammowiwaktsch "they will not hear something" (or "some things")


SUBORDINATIVE MODE, ABSOLUTE STATE

This Mode uses the singular person forms of the Objective State, for both singular AND plural objects of Absolute State forms.  (See the next Part.)

That's it for this time.  Next time we'll cover the TI verbs in the OBJECTIVE STATE of the Indicative and Subordinative Modes of the Independent Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#59 Jun-14-2014 10:04:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 13:  TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERBS, PART 2

In this Part, we will cover the Transitive Inanimate verbs in the Objective State of the Indicative and Subordinative Modes of the Independent Order.  We will conjugate the verb stem, "nem-" ('see something').  Remember that the Objective State means that the "object" of the verbal action is a DEFINITE object.


TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, OBJECTIVE STATE, POSTIVE FORM, SINGULAR OBJECT

nemen   "I see it"

knemen   "you (sg.) see it"

wunemen   "he (or "she") sees it"

nemenneen   "we (excl.) see it"

knemenneen   "we (incl.) see it"

knemennewo   "you (pl.) see it"

nemennewo   "they see it"


PLURAL OBJECT

nemennall   "I see them"

knemennall   "you (sg.) see them"

wunemennall   "he (or "she") sees them"

nemennenanall   "we (excl.) see them"

knemennenanall   "we (incl.) see them"

knemennewoawall   "you (pl.) see them"

nemennewoawall   "they see them"


NEGATIVE FORM, SINGULAR OBJECT

atta nemennowi   "I don't see it"

atta knemennowi   "you (sg.) don't see it"

atta wunemennowi   "he (or "she") doesn't see it"

atta nemennowineen   "we (excl.) don't see it"

atta knemennowineen   "we (incl.) don't see it"

atta knemennowinewo   "you (pl.) don't see it"

atta nemennowinewo   "they don't see it"


NEGATIVE FORM, PLURAL OBJECT

atta nemennowiwall   "I don't see them"

atta knemennowiwall   "you (sg.) don't see them"

atta wunemennowiwall   "he (or "she") doesn't see them"

atta nemennowinenanall   "we (excl.) don't see them"

atta knemennowinenanall   "we (incl.) don't see them"

atta knemennowinewoawall   "you (pl.) don't see them"

atta nemennowinewoawall   "they don't see them"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM, SINGULAR OBJECT

nemenneep   "I saw it"

knemenneep   "you (sg.) saw it"

wunemmeneep   "he (or "she") saw it"

nemenneeneep   "we (excl.) saw it"

knemenneeneep   "we (incl.) saw it"

knemennewoap   "you (pl.) saw it"

nemennewoap   "they saw it"


PLURAL OBJECT

nemennepannil   "I saw them"

knemennepannil   "you (sg.) saw them"

wunemennepannil   "he (or "she") saw them"

nemennenapannil   "we (excl.) saw them"

knemennenapannil   "we (incl.) saw them"

knemennewoapannil   "you (pl.) saw them"

nemennewoapannil   "they saw them"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM, SINGULAR OBJECT

atta nemennowineep   "I did not see it"

atta knemennowineep   "you (sg.) did not see it"

atta wunemennowineep   "he (or "she") did not see it"

atta nemennowineeneep   "we (excl.) did not see it"

atta knemennowineeneep   "we (incl.) did not see it"

atta knemennowinewoap   "you (pl.) did not see it"

atta nemennowinewoap   "they did not see it"


PLURAL OBJECT

atta nemennowipannil   "I didn't see them"

atta knemennowipannil   "you (sg.) didn't see them"

atta wunemennowipannil   "he (or "she") didn't see them"

atta nemennowinenapannil   "we (excl.) didn't see them"

atta knemennowinenapannil   "we (incl.) didn't see them"

atta knemennowinewoapannil   "you (pl.) didn't see them"

atta nemennowinewoapannil   "they didn't see them"


FUTURE TENSE

Simply add the future marker, "-tsch," to the Unspecified Tense forms.

Example:  nementsch   "I will see it"

Example:  knemennewoatsch   "you (pl.) will see it"

Example:  atta nemennowinenanalltsch   "we (excl.) will not see them"


SUBORDINATIVE MODE

The Subordinative Mode uses the Singular Object forms of the Objective State.

Example:  gatta nemen   "you (sg.) want to see it" (or "them")

Example:  wtelli atta nemennowinewoap   "that they did not see it" (or "them")

Next time we will deal with the Conjunct Order of the Transitive Inanimate verbs.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#60 Jun-14-2014 10:07:pm

sschkaak
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Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 13:  TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERBS, PART 3

In this part of the lesson, we will begin to cover Transitive Inanimate verbs in the Conjunct Order.  Here, examples of all five Modes of the Conjunct Order will be shown, together:  Conjunct Indicative ("why"), Changed Conjunct ("as"), Subjunctive ("if"), Changed Subjunctive ("when"), Participle ("who").

For our paradigm, we will use the verb, "mikindamen" ('to work it').


TI THEME 1 VERBS, CONJUNCT ORDER, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch mikindama?   "Why do I work it?"

eli mikindama   "as I work it"

mikindamane   "if I work it"

enda mikindamane   "when I work it"

mikindama   "I who work it"


Quatsch mikindaman?   "Why do you (sg.) work it?"

eli mikindaman   "as you (sg.) work it"

mikindamanne   "if you (sg.) work it"

enda mikindamanne   "when you (sg.) work it"

mikindaman   "you (sg.) who work it"


Quatsch mikindank?   "Why does she (or "he") work it?"

eli mikindank   "as she (or "he") works it"

mikindanke   "if she (or "he") works it"

enda mikindanke   "when she (or "he") works it"

mikindank   "she (or "he") who works it"


Quatsch mikindamenk?   "Why do we (excl.) work it?"

eli mikindamenk   "as we (excl.) work it"

mikindamenque   "if we (excl.) work it"

enda mikindamenque   "when we (excl.) work it"

mikindamenk   "we (excl.) who work it"


Quatsch mikindamank?   "Why do we (incl.) do it?"

eli mikindamank   "as we (incl.) work it"

mikindamanque   "if we (incl.) work it"

enda mikindamanque   "when we (incl.) work it"

mikindamank   "we (incl.) who work it"


Quatsch mikindameek?   "Why do you (pl.) work it?"

eli mikindameek   "as you (pl.) work it"

mikindameque   "if you (pl.) work it"

enda mikindameque   "when you (pl.) work it"

mikindameek   "you (pl.) who work it"


Quatsch mikindamechtit?   "Why do they work it?"

eli mikindamechtit   "as they work it"

mikindamechtite   "if they work it"

enda mikindamechtite   "when they work it"

mikindangik   "they who work it"


NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch taku mikindamowija?   "Why don't I work it?"

eli taku mikindamowija   "as I don't work it"

taku mikindamowijane   "if I don't work it"

enda taku mikindamowija   "when I don't work it"

taku mikindamowija   "I who don't work it"


Quatsch taku mikindamowijann?   "Why don't you (sg.) work it?"

eli taku mikindamowijann   "as you (sg.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijanne   "if you (sg.) don't work it"

enda taku mikindamowijanne   "when you (sg.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijann   "you (sg.) who don't work it"


Quatsch taku mikindanq'?   "Why doesn't she (or "he") work it?"

eli taku mikindanq'   "as she (or "he") doesn't work it"

taku mikindanque   "if she (or "he") doesn't work it"

enda taku mikindanque   "when she (or "he") doesn't work it"

taku mikindanq'   "she (or "he") who doesn't work it"


Quatsch taku mikindamowijenk?   "Why don't we (excl.) work it?"

eli taku mikindamowijenk   "as we (excl.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijenque   "if we (excl.) don't work it"

enda taku mikindamowijenque   "when we (excl.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijenk   "we (excl.) who don't work it"

Quatsch taku mikindamowijank?   "Why don't we (in.) work it?"

eli taku mikindamowijank   "as we (in.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijanque   "if we (in.) don't work it"

enda taku mikindamowijanque   "when we (in.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijank   "we (in.) who don't work it"


Quatsch taku mikindamowijeek?   "Why don't you (pl.) work it?"

eli taku mikindamowijeek   "as you (pl.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijeque   "if you (pl.) don't work it"

enda taku mikindamowijeque   "when you (pl.) don't work it"

taku mikindamowijeek   "you (pl.) who don't work it"


Quatsch taku mikindamechtik?   "Why don't they work it?"

eli taku mikindamechtik   "as they don't work it"

taku mikindamechtique   "if they don't work it"

enda taku mikindamechtique   "when they don't work it"

taku mikindanquik   "they who don't work it"

Next time, we will finish the other Tenses of the Conjunct Order and cover the TI Imperative Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#61 Jun-14-2014 10:11:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 13:  TRANSITIVE INANIMATE VERBS, PART 4

In this part, we will deal, briefly, with the Preterite and Future Tenses of Transitive Inanimate verbs in the Conjunct Order; and, finish with the TI verbs in the Imperative Order.  We will use the verb stem, "pennam" ('look at something').


TI VERBS, CONJUNCT ORDER, PRETERITE TENSE

The Preterite Tense is formed exactly the same as for the Animate Intransitve verbs.

Example:  Quatsch pennamannep? "Why did you (sg.) look at it?"

Example:  enda taku pennamowiyeekpanne "when you (pl.) did not look at it"


TI VERBS, CONJUNCT ORDER, FUTURE TENSE

The Future Tense is formed, as usual, by adding the future marker, "-tsch," to the Unspecified Tense forms.

Example:  eli pennanktsch   "as he (or "she") will look at it"

Example:  taku pennamechtiquetsch   "if they will not look at it"


TI VERBS, IMPERATIVE ORDER, ORDINARY IMPERATIVE MODE

Penna.   "Look at it." or "Look at them." (you/sg.)

Pennamook.   "Look at it." or "Look at them." (you/pl.)

Pennamotam.   "Let us look at it." or "Let us look at them." (you [sg.] and me)

Pennamotamook   "Let us look at it." or "Let us look at them." (you [pl.] and me)


PROHIBITIVE MODE

Katschi pennankhan.   "Do not look at it" (or "them"). (you/sg.)

Katschi pennankhek.   "Do not look at it" (or "them"). (you/pl.)

Katschi pennankhitsch.   "Let him not look at it" (or "them").

Katschi pennamhittihitsch.   "Let them not look at it" (or "them").


FUTURE IMPERATIVE MODE

Pennamome.   "Look at it" (or "them") [at some particular time in the future]. (you/sg.)

Pennamomek or Pennamomowe.   "Look at it" (or "them") [at some particular time in the future] (you/pl.)

Congratulations!  You have survived the entire length of the lessons concerning the parts of speech!  We can now move on to syntax (sentence structure) and, perhaps, a few miscellaneous technical points of grammar.  After that, we can begin to read Lenape texts, and translate English texts into Lenape.  By then, you will have been taught as much as I have to offer.  At that point, you SHOULD be able to communicate with each other, in Lenape--haltingly and imperfectly, to be sure, but, in REAL Lenape--and, in a dialect which has not been spoken (or written, for that matter) for more than a century.  That would be quite an accomplishment, should it ever come to pass!

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#62 Jun-15-2014 09:00:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 14:  Syntax, Part 1

In grammar, "syntax" signifies "sentence structure"--the order in which words are arranged in a sentence.  In other words, it shows the proper sequence of the different parts of speech in a sentence.

In Lenape, the simplest sentences are, of course, composed of one word; usually a verb or interjective particle.

Example:  nmikemossi "I work" or "I am working"

Example:  linkteu "it melts" or "it is melting"

Example:  genamel "I thank you (sg.)"

Example:  guttgennemenep "she gave it back"

Example:  Wo! "Oh!"

Example:  Anischi! "Thanks!"

Nouns and particles can also serve as one word sentences when they are simply answers to questions.

When nouns are used in conjunction with intransitive verbs, they GENERALLY precede the verb, although this "rule" is NOT absolute, by any means.  The order is really up to the speaker's preference, but actual usage shows the noun > verb sequence to be more prevalent.

Examples (animate):

tamaque mikemossu   "the beaver works" {lit., "the-beaver he-works"}

namesak machtschimaxowak   "the fish stink" {lit., "the-fish they-stink"}

amemens pommixu   "the baby crawls" {lit., "the-baby she-crawls"}

machkwak mizupannik   "the bears ate" {lit., "the-bears they-ate"}

Examples (inanimate):

amochol wundpeu   "the canoe leaks" {lit., "the-canoe it-leaks"}

wunipachkwall pommihillewall   "the leaves fly by" {lit., "the-leaves they-fly-by"}

putel linkteu   "the butter melts" {lit., "the-butter it-melts"}

hittguttittall lutepannil   "the twigs burned" {lit., "the-twigs they-burned"}

All of the above examples use third person subjects. First and second person subjects are always represented by the independent ("free") pronouns, which may, or may not, be used (since the person is already indicated by the bound pronoun affix attached to the verb).  When the independent pronouns ARE used, the verb is USUALLY in the Subordinative Mode, and the pronoun ALWAYS precedes the verb.

Examples:

ni ngendkaan   "I dance" or "I am dancing"

ki kdellsin   "you (sg.) do so" or "you (sg.) are doing so"

niluna ndappineen   "we (excl.) are there"

kiluwa kpommissinewo   "you (pl.) walk" or "you are walking"

Of course, third person pronouns are often used as substitutes for the nouns, too.

Examples:

necama nemen   "he sees it"

necamawa pendamenewo   "they hear it"

A two-word sentence can be formed with two nouns or pronoun + noun (or participle).

Examples:

lenno sakima   "the man is a chief"

ki gebtschaat   "you (sg.) are a fool"

Sentences which have both subject and object use transitive verbs, and usually consist of at least three words. When substantives (nouns or participles) are used as subject and object, the word order is not important.  Remember that secondary third person nouns, and possessed
nouns, are obviative.

Examples:

ochquewak wtahoalawak gohessuwawall "the women love their mother {lit., "the-women they-love-her their-mother"}

OR, you can say:

ochquewak gohessuwawall wtahoalawawall

OR

gohessuwawall ochquewak wtahoalawawall

OR

gohessuwawall wtahoalawawall ochquewak 

Because the participants (subject and object) are indexed in the verb, there is no confusion about the meaning of these words, no matter how they are arranged.

To say, "their mother loves the women" a different verbal form (TA Theme 2) MUST be used to show that the obviative noun ("their-mother") is the subject:

ochquewall wtahoalguwawall gohessuwawall  (These words may be in any order, as shown above.)

Other examples:

lenno wunewawall achtuchall "the man sees a deer" {lit., "the-man he-sees-him a-deer "}

msag hackink pakachtechenep "the log fell to the ground" {lit., "the-log on-the-ground it-fell"}   

That's enough for this time. Please ask, if any of this is unclear.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#63 Jun-15-2014 09:03:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 14:  Syntax, Part 2

In the first part of this lesson, we saw how pronouns, nouns and verbs are sequenced to form proper sentences.  We observed that word order was often not particularly important, because the subject and object nouns (or participles) of a sentence are always indicated in the verb, by means of prefixes and suffixes.

In this final part, we will see how the other parts of speech are incorporated into grammatically correct syntax.


PRENOUNS AND PREVERBS

Syntax is a "no-brainer" with these two parts of speech, since their names tell us where they go--that is, "prenouns" ALWAYS precede a noun they describe; and "preverbs" ALWAYS precede the verb with which they are associated.  In a sentence like, "lenni minall enda nipenke tepikenall" ('Common huckleberries are full-grown when it's Summer'), the sequence is prenoun/noun/preverb/verb/verb.  In the sentence, "tschipi ochqueu gotta aanep" ('A strange woman wanted to go'), the sequence is prenoun/noun/preverb/verb.

Quite often, the preverb is separated from the verb by one or more intervening words, but it ALWAYS precedes the verb with which it is associated.

Example:  "ngatta allowiwi luen"  ('I want to say more')  [Here, the preverb and verb are separated by an intervening particle.]


PARTICIPLES

Like prenouns, participles often serve as descriptives.  One may say, "esseni temagan" ('a stony path'), using the prenoun; but, you can also say, "essenik temagan" ('a stony path'), using the participle.  The first phrase is literally, 'a stony path.' The second is 'that-which-is-stony a-path.'  Awkward when literally translated, but quite proper in Lenape.  In fact, participles are probably used for descriptives as often, or more often, than prenouns.  There aren't really that many prenouns which have equivalent participles (like the example above).  One can say, "wapsit lennape" ('white person'), but there is no prenoun used for 'white, in Northern Unami.'

UNLIKE prenouns, participles can precede OR follow the noun which they describe.  Both "welsit lenno" and "lenno welsit" mean 'a good man' (literally, 'one-who-is-good a-man' and 'a-man one-who-is-good'), although they usually precede the noun when used in expressions like this.

Remember, however, that participles can also stand alone, when used like nouns.  A phrase like "mechksitschik ochquehellewak" ('red hens') is more specific than just "mechksitschik" ('they-who-are-red'), but either COULD be used when speaking about 'red hens.'


DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

These usually precede the noun (or participle), but not always.  You can say, "nan pochquachpus" ('that chipmunk') or "pochquachpus nan" ('the-chipmunk that-one').  Once those speaking to each other know that the conversation is about a chipmunk, only the demonstative pronoun need be used when referring to the chipmunk ("nan" - 'that-one'). Even this can be dropped when a third person pronoun is prefixed to a verb describing the action of the chipmunk.  Syntactically, demonstrative pronouns are something like participles.


PARTICLES

Particles used as conjunctions are always placed between two nouns or verbal phrases.

Example:  "moekaneu woak puschis" ('dog and cat').

Example:  "matschipannik woak mizopannik" ('they went home and they ate').

Negative particles ALWAYS precede the word to which they are connected.  One says, "atta n'mikemossiwi" ('I don't work'); or, "taku petekhammolowiantsch" ('I will not write to you').

The particle, "li" ('to,' 'towards') is USUALLY placed after a noun.  Phrases like "utenink li" ('to the town') are met with often.

Other particles show up in various positions in a sentence or phrase.  Their proper placement must be learned by experience.


A WORD ON THE CONJUNCT ORDER

Up until now, we have adhered to a strict translation of the modes of the Conjunct Order.  That is, the Conjunct Indicative Mode is translated as "Why;" the Changed Conjunct Mode is transated as "as;" the Subjunctive Mode is translated as "if;" the Changed Subjunctive Mode is translated as "when;" the Participle is translated as "who." However, while this is correct, in their pure forms, the meanings of the two "changed" modes can be altered by the particular preverbs which are used.  For instance, "eli ktschija" means 'as I go out;' but "wentschi ktschija" means 'so that I go out.'  Likewise, "enda milite" means 'when he gave it to me;' but "metschi milite" means 'after he gives it to me.'

The preverb, "enda," means both 'when' and 'where.'  If it is to mean 'when,' I use the Changed Subjunctive Mode ("enda lissijanne" - 'when you (sg.) do so').  If it is to mean 'where,' I use the Changed Conjunct Mode ("enda lissijann" - 'where you (sg.) do so').  This is not always so clear in the writings, but it's a convenient convention.

This brings us to the end of our lessons on Northern Unami grammar.  I think I have imparted to you everything I am capable of, at this time; hopefully, avoiding too many mistakes!  It remains for you to build up your vocabulary.  A good place to start doing this would be by finding a copy of A Lenape-English Dictionary, by Daniel Brinton and Albert Anthony.  This work can be found online, on various websites.

Wawullamallessik!  ("Fare-ye-well-continually")

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#64 Jun-16-2014 06:56:pm

djsorg
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Registered: May-11-2014
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Thank you Raymond,
  These lessons are a treasure.

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#65 Jun-16-2014 07:01:pm

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

You're very welcome.  I hope they help somebody.

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#66 Jun-16-2014 08:11:pm

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I've said this before, but it bears repeating:  I place a copyright notice on my works ONLY to prevent someone else from trying to keep me from using my own work.  Permission is granted to ANYONE to copy ANYTHING I post online--whether or not it has a copyright notice.

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#67 Jun-16-2014 10:24:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Nevertheless, I copy the lessons into Word documents in their entirety so that I will always give proper credit for the monumental work you have done here.

Last edited by Suckachsinheet (Jun-16-2014 10:25:pm)


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#68 Jun-17-2014 07:04:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Thanks, Paul.  I do appreciate that.

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#69 Jun-17-2014 07:55:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I will now post several quizzes that accompanied these lessons.  These should be good for self-testing, and for getting an idea of what these lessons attempt to teach.  I don't recall if there were quizzes for the final two lessons.  I don't think there were, since those who had gotten that far didn't appear to require more testing.  In any case, below are those which survive.

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#70 Jun-17-2014 07:57:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 2: Quiz


The following short quiz will allow you to test your knowledge of the Lenape noun, and noun-like participles.


1. If "nisktoonheet" means 'one who makes noise,' how do you say, 'they who make noise'?

2. If "moos" means 'elk,' how do you say, 'a dead elk'?

3. If "amel" means 'hammer,' how do you say, 'little hammer'?

4. If "tajachquoan" means 'bridge,' how do you say, 'on his little bridge'?

5. If "teskwachtaminschi" means 'shagbark hickory tree,' how do you say, 'her shagbark hickory tree'?

6. If "kitachtin" means 'big mountain,' how do you say, 'on a big mountain'?

7. If "peijachkhank" means 'one who shoots a gun,' how do you say, 'they who shoot guns'?

8. If "schakbi" means 'fountain,' how do you say, 'fountains'?

9. "Gokhotit" means 'little owl.'  In the sentence, 'I found two dead little owls,' how do you say, 'dead little owls'?

10. If "tschimalus" means 'bluebird,' how do you say, 'little bluebird'?

11. "Menatey" means 'island.'  In the sentence, 'We went to the island,' how do you say 'to the island'?

12. What is the maximum number of modifying suffixes that can be added to a noun, at any one time?

13. "Gischellemelankw" means 'He Who creates us by His thought.'  In the sentence, 'She prayed to He Who creates us by his thought,' how do you say, 'He Who creates us by his thought'?

14. If "ochqueu" means 'woman,' how do you say, 'women'?

15. "Metimmeu" means 'wolf.'  In the sentence, 'The hunter saw four wolves,' how do you say 'wolves'?

16. If "achpoan" means 'bread,' how do you say, 'breads'?

17. "Tipas" means 'chicken.'  In the sentence, 'You found her dead chicken,' how do you say, 'her dead chicken'?

18. What gender is "talala" ('a white cedar tree')?

19. If "tankhanneu" means 'little stream,' how do you say, 'in the little streams'?

20. If "putscheek" means 'that which is an inside corner,' how do you say, 'those which are inside corners'?

21. If "tangamikan" means 'spear,' how do you say, 'my spear'?

22. "Aney" means 'trail.'  In the sentence, 'The trail is gone,' how do you say, 'trail'?

23. If "achsin" means 'stone,' how do you say, 'a little stone'?

24. "Getanittowit" means 'He Who is the Great Spirit.'  In the sentence, 'The people worship He Who is the Great Spirit,' how do you say, 'He Who is the Great Spirit'?

25. If "elikus" means 'ant,' how do you say, 'ants'?

26. If "schingachteyapuchk" means 'a flat rock,' how do you say, 'a little flat rock'?

27. "Moekaneu" means 'dog.'  In the sentence, 'I saw three dogs,' how do you say 'dogs'?

28. If "mochwe" means 'worm,' how do you say, 'worms'?

29. If "tchallaan" means 'a plank bed,' how do you say, 'their plank bed'?

30. What gender is "papeek" ('a pond')?


Ray Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#71 Jun-17-2014 07:58:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lessons 1-5, Quiz


1. In the sentence, "That stone is round," how do you say, "That stone"?

2. In the sentence, "She killed those little ants," how do you say, "those little ants"?

3. In the sentence, "I have cared for both big horses and little horses," how do you say, "big horses and little horses"?

4. In the sentence, "This strange fish was caught in the brook," how do you say, "This strange fish"?

5. In the sentence, "That important man is my uncle," how do you say, "That important man"?

6. In the sentence, "I came to these little towns," how do you say, "these little towns"?

7. In the sentence, "You saw her on the other side of the water," how do you say, "on the other side of the water"?

8. In the sentence, "She borrowed our spoons and kettles," how do you say, "our spoons and kettles"?

9. How do you say, "What little river?"

10. In the sentence, "There are many crayfish in our little creeks," how do you say, "in our little creeks"?

11. How do you say, "Oh, my bloody hand!"?

12. In the sentence, "I found it in the gulley, underneath a flat rock," how do you say, "in the gulley, underneath a flat rock"?

13. In the sentence, "You saw their plantations and their white cedar trees," how do you say, "their plantations and their white cedar trees"?

14. In the sentence, "She soon came upon those dead whales," how do you say, "those dead whales"?

15. In the sentence, "Some people from that island visited us, yesterday," how do you say, "Some people from that island"?

16. How would you say, "Where is your (pl.) chief?"

17. In the sentence, "The sum was two and four--or six," how do you say, "two and four--or six"?

18. In the sentence, "We saw them on both sides of the hill," how do you say, "on both sides of the hill"?

19. In the sentence, "There were many alder trees in that forest," how do you say, "many alder trees"?

20. In the sentence, "They came to the huts," how do you say, "to the huts"?


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-17-2014 07:59:am)

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#72 Jun-17-2014 07:59:am

sschkaak
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Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 6: Quiz


1. What TENSE is "m'pamsa" ['I-have-come']?

2. What ORDER is "Paal." ['Come.']?

3. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "m'benauwawuna" ['we-look-at-him']?

4. What TYPE of verb is "sokelan" ['it-rains']?

5. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "natenate" ['if-she-accepts-him']?

6. What MODE is "Wulelenda!" ['Rejoice!']?

7. What SUB-TYPE of verb is "n'mikindamauwan" ['I-do-it-for-him']?

8. In the word, "knewel" ['I-see-you'], what is the THEME SIGN?

9. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "n'schiwamallsiwi" ['I-do-not-feel-pain']?

10. What TENSE is "kdellauchsi" ['you-live']?

11. What FORM is "ktschinewo" ['they-go-out']?

12. What TYPE is "newawuna" ['we-see-her"]?

13. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "ktanghitoneesa" ['you-have-lost-it]?

14. What MODE is "eluet" ['as-he-says']?

15. What FORM is "nachpauchsiwuneen" ['we-do-not-enjoy-it']?

16. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "witschewawall" ['she-goes-with-them']?

17. What TENSE is "milgussijenkup" ['if-it-was-given-to-us']?

18. What ORDER is "pejewike" ['if-it-comes']?

19. What MODIFICATION and SUFFIX POSITION is indicated by the suffix at the end of "opetekhammauwawak" ['he-writes-it-to-them']?

20. What MODE is "nemane" ['if-I-see-it']?

21. What TYPE of verb is "lauchsit" ['he-lives']?

22. What STATE is "n'dahoalawak," in the phrase, "n'dahoalawak auweenik" ['I love those people']?

23. What MODE is "wtan" ['she-goes']?

24. What TYPE of verb is "kpendammen" ['you-hear-it']?

25. What MODE is "ehakiheet" ['she-who-plants']?

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#73 Jun-17-2014 08:01:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lessons 7 & 8: Quiz


Here is the vocabulary you will need to complete these exercises.  There are six AI verbs and one II verb.


allauwin ["there is hunting"]

mizin ["there is eating"]

gauwin ["there is sleeping"]

hakihen ["there is planting"]

wendamen ["there is fishing (with hook & line)"]

pommissin ["there is walking"]

linkteu ["it melts"]


1. In the sentence, "I always feel lucky when I hunt," how do you say, "when I hunt"?

2. How do you say, "that which melts"?

3. In the sentence, "We (incl.) hunt in the morning," how do you say, "We (incl.) hunt"?

4. How do you say, "Walk! (you [sg.])"?

5. How do you say, "she wants to sleep"?

6. How do you say, "Why do we (excl.) hunt?"

7. How do you say, "Let us walk"?

8. In the sentence, "It was during the time that we (incl.) planted," how do you say, "that we (in.) planted"?

9. In the sentence, "Now you (pl.) can eat, because you (pl.) have been fishing," how do you say, "because you (pl.) have been fishing"?

10. In the sentence, "We (excl.) have been fishing all day," how do you say, "We (excl.) have been fishing"?

11. In the sentence, "We'll (incl.) eat if you (sg.) will fish," how do you say, "if you (s.) will fish"?

12. How do you say, "the whole bunch of us (incl.) are walking"?

13. How do you say, "Why haven't they slept?"

14. In the sentence, "They rested well when they slept," how do you say, "when they slept"?

15. How do you say, "You (sg.) must plant"?

16. In the sentence, "If they melted, they're no good," how do you say, "If they melted"?

17. In the sentence, "They will walk, tomorrow," how do you say, "they will walk"?

18. In the sentence, "I do not eat because I'm ill," how do you say, "I do not eat"?

19. In the sentence, "If they have not walked, then they will," how do you say, "If they have not walked"?

20. How do you say, "You (pl.) must eat"?

21. In the sentence, "I can see that you (sg.) have been fishing," how do you say, "that you (sg.) have been fishing"?

22. How do you say, "they (inan.) did not melt"?

23. In the sentence, "You (sg.) slept well, last night," how do you say, "You (sg.) slept"?

24. In the sentence, "If you (sg.) plant now, it will be good," how do you say, "If you (sg.) plant"?

25. How do you say, "they who fished"?

26. In the sentence, "When you (pl.) have eaten, then you may leave," how do you say, "When you (pl.) have eaten"?

27. In the sentence, "When it rained, you (pl.) did not plant," how do you say, "you (pl.) did not plant"?

28. How do you say, "Why didn't we (excl.) eat?"

29. How do you say, "they (inan.) melt"?

30. In the sentence, "Our backs became tired as we (excl.) planted," how do you say, "as we (excl.) planted"?

31. In the sentence, "It is certain that they will not walk," how do you say, "that they will not walk"?

32. How do you say, "you (sg.) want to eat"?

33. How do you say, "Let her sleep"?

34. How do you say, "I want to hunt"?

35. How do you say, "you (pl.) who plant"?

36. How do you say, "Don't hunt (you [pl.])"?

37. How do you say, "he who eats"?

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#74 Jun-17-2014 08:03:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 9: Quiz


In addition to words you already know, the following words and verb stems will be used in these exercises:


naala- = "fetch" [no initial change]

klenna- = "hold" [keelenna- with initial change]

n'gatta = "I want" ("we want" with plural suffix on verb)

atta n'gatta = "I do not want" ("we do not want" with plural suffix on
verb)

{Remember that the second person and third person forms of this prenoun are "gatta" and "gotta," respectively.}

Now, translate the following phrases into Lenape:

1. "some people (indef.) want to hold them"

2. "Fetch them [at some particular time in the future]" (you - sg.)

3. "you (sg.) fetch somebody"

4. "Why don't you (pl.) hold him?"

5. "he fetched her"

6. "Why do you (sg.) hold him?"

7. "if someone (indef.) will hold her"

8. "you (pl.) did not fetch some people"

9. "I want to hold them"

10. "Let us (you & me) fetch him."

11. "when they hold her"

12. "she does not fetch some people"

13. "Why have I held him?"

14. "we (incl.) will want to hold them"

15. "I fetch her"

16. "Hold us." (you - pl.)

17. "someone fetched them"

18. "as he holds her"

19. "him whom she held"

20. "you (pl.) wanted to hold him"

21. "we (incl.) fetched somebody"

22. "if we (excl.) hold them"

23. "when you (sg.) fetched them"

24. "they will not want to hold her"

25. "we (excl.) did not fetch them"

26. "she who holds him"

27. "they will fetch somebody"

28. "Don't hold me." (you - sg.)

29. "they who fetched them"

30. "you (pl.) do not fetch them"


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#75 Jun-17-2014 08:04:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 10: Quiz


Translate the following phrases into Lenape:


1. as he heals me

2. we (incl.) will not be pierced (objective state)

3. when she called her

4. it brings me

5. they are not called

6. they (anim.) wanted to bring you (pl.)

7. she who takes them

8. they fetch her

9. if it abides in you (pl.)

10. she was not called (absolute state)

11. Why does it heal us (excl.)?

12. they fetched you (pl.)

13. when he has called you (pl.)

14. you (sg.) are not pierced (objective state)

15. if they have abided in them

16. he fetches us (incl.)

17. they who take you (sg.)

18. we (excl.) are called (absolute state)

19. it won't bring them

20. when they will call us (excl.)

21. I was pierced (objective state)

22. if it did not abide in us (incl.)

23. you (sg.) who are called

24. as they heal them

25. What letter signifies the Transitive Animate Theme 2 "Theme Sign"?

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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