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#26 May-25-2014 02:04:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 6: INTRODUCTION TO VERBS, PART 1


Concerning these lessons, on the Lenape verbs, I can make no claim to originality.  I am sharing what I have learned primarily from Dr. Ives Goddard's definitive work, DELAWARE VERBAL MORPHOLOGY. My understanding of his work is what I am, here, adapting specifically to the Northern Unami dialect; and, for people without formal linguistic training (like myself). Rest assured that any mistakes made, in interpreting Dr. Goddard's work, can be attributed to me, alone.

PREFACE

The Lenape verb comes in four "TYPES:" Animate Intransitive, Inanimate Intransitive, Transitive Animate, and Transitive Inanimate; three "SUB-TYPES:" Animate Intransitive plus Object, Transitive Animate plus
Second Object, and Objectless Transitive Inanimate; two "FORMS:" Positive and Negative; three "ORDERS:" Independent, Conjunct, and Imperative; ten "MODES:" Independent Indicative, Subordinative, Conjunct Indicative, Changed Conjunct, Changed Subjunctive, Subjunctive, Participle, Ordinary Imperative, Prohibitive, and Future Imperative; four "TENSES:" Unspecified, Preterite, Imperfect, and Future; two "STATES:" Absolute and Objective; and, seven "THEMES:" Transitive
Animate 1, 2, 3, & 4 and Transitive Inanimate 1A, 1B, and 2.

TYPES

1. Animate Intransitive (AI) - An AI verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate subject--that is, by a grammatically "living" being. These verbs have a subject, but no "object."

Example:  nmikemossi ["I-work"]

2. Inanimate Intransitive (II) - An II verb is one the action of which is performed by an inanimate subject--that is, by a grammatically "non-living" thing. These verbs have a subject, but no "object."

Example:  wundpeu ["it-leaks"]

3. Transitive Animate (TA) - A TA verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate or inanimate subject on, to or for an animate being, which is the "object."

Example:  mbendawa ["I-hear-him" (or "her")]

Example:  ndappitagun ["it-abides-in-me"]

4. Transitive Inanimate (TI) - A TI verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate subject on, to or for an inanimate "object."

Example:  kpendamen ["you-hear-it"]

SUB-TYPES

1. Animate Intransitive plus Object (AI+O) - An AI+O verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate subject on, to or for an animate or inanimate third person, "object." 

Example:  nwansin ["I-forget-him"]

Example:  nmennen ["I-drink-it"]

2. Transitive Animate plus Second Object (TA+O) - A TA+O verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate or inanimate subject on, to or for an animate "object," PLUS a "second object," which is animate or inanimate, but ALWAYS third person.

Example:  kmitachkaniechtaguneen ['he-makes-him-manifest-to-us"]

Example:  kmilan ["you-give-it-to-him"]

3. Objectless Transitive Inanimate (OTI) - An OTI verb is one the action of which is performed by an animate subject, but which has no "object" (similar to AI verbs).

Example:  nschiwelendam ["I-am-grieved"]

Example:  kolelendam ["you (sg.) are glad"]

FORMS

1. Positive - Any verb may take a Positive form, which is self-explanatory.

Example:  gauwiu ["she" (or "he") sleeps"]

Example:  kmitschihhimo ["you (pl.) eat it"]

2. Negative - Any verb may take a Negative form, ALWAYS preceded by a negative particle, which is likewise self-explanatory.

Example:  matta pommauchsiwi ["he-does-not-live"]

Example:  nesquo gischigiwengup ["we (incl.) were not yet born"]

Commit these categories to memory. It's not important, at this stage, to understand how these verbs express the meanings they do. For now, it is important to simply learn these categories. The rest will come, soon enough. We'll continue with the "Introduction to Verbs," next time.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#27 May-25-2014 02:12:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 6: INTRODUCTION TO VERBS, PART 2


Last time, we outlined the verb TYPES, SUB-TYPES and FORMS. This week we will outline the verb ORDERS, MODES, TENSES, STATES and THEMES.

ORDERS

1. Independent Order - This "order" is used when making independent statements and asking questions.

Example:  ktahoali ["I-love-you (sg.)"]

Example:  kpendamen? ["Do-you(sg.)-see-it"]

2. Conjunct Order - This order is used in subordinate phrases (dependent clauses), and in the formation of participles.

Example:  nemenke ["if-we-see-it']

Example:  mennete ["if-she-drinks"]

3. Imperative Order - This order is used for commands and prohibitions.  The particle, katschi ("don't") always precedes prohibitions.

Example:  wulelendamook ["Rejoice!" (you-pl.)]

Example:  katschi ntutemawachtihek ["Don't do-not-question-each-other." (you-pl.)]

MODES

1. The Indicative Mode of the Independent Order is used for making simple statements and queries.

Example:  kpendawa ["you(sg.)-hear-him"]

Example:  kolamallsi? ["Are-you(sg.)-well?"]

2. The Subordinative Mode of the Independent Order is primarily used with with certain preverbs and particles, to form subordinate clauses.

Example:  wtelli penundhikenewo ["that-they testify"]

Example:  guntschi woatoneen ["hereby-we (incl.) we-know-it"]

3. The Indicative Mode of the Conjunct Order is very rare.  It sometimes occurs with certain particles.

Example:  quatsch lepakan? ["Why do you (sg.) weep"?]

4. The Changed Conjunct Mode of the Conjunct Order is used to indicate simultaneous events.  That is, words preceded by "as" or "while."  On the examples below, initial change occurs on the first vowel of each preverb.

Example:  eendchappiyenk ["as many as we are here"]

Example:  eeli mochgank ["as I found it"]

5. The Changed Subjunctive Mode of the Conjunct Order is used to show temporal precedence. That is, words preceded by "when" or "after," etc.

Example:  metschi angelane ["after I die"]

Example:  mizijann ["when you (sg.) eat"]

6. The Subjunctive Mode of the Conjunct Order is used to state hypothetical situations. That is, words preceded by "if."

Example:  pommissite ["if he goes"]

Example:  pommauchsichtite ["if they live"]

7. The Participle of the Conjunct Order is used to form noun-like words from verbs.

Example:  kikehuwet ["he-(or she)-who-causes-healing"]

Example:  gischelematpannik ["those-whom-he-created"]

8. The Ordinary Mode of the Imperative Order is used to issue positive commands.

Example:  gauwil ["Sleep." (you-sg.)]

Example:  wulelendamotam ["Let us rejoice!"]

9. The Prohibitive Mode of the Imperative Order is used to issue prohibitions.

Example:  katschi ankhitohan ["Don't lose it!" (you-sg.)]

Example:  katschi wannessihan ["Don't forget it." (you-sg.)]

10. The Future Imperative Mode of the Imperative Order is used to command an action to be taken at some particular time in the future.

Example:  lime ["You (sg.) must tell me." (at some particular time in the future)]

Example:  milomowe ["Give it to him (you/pl.)." (at some particular time in the future)]

TENSES

1. The Unspecified Tense can be used to indicate any tense (present, preterite, imperfect, future), depending on the context in which it occurs. It is most commonly used to indicate the present tense.

Example:  kpendawihhimo ["you (pl.) hear me"]

Example:  petolenque ["if we bring it to you"]

2. The Preterite Tense is used to indicate past actions.

Example:  achpoop ["she was there"]

Example:  pommauchsichtitpanne ["if they lived"]

3. The Imperfect Tense is used, usually in queries, to ask about past actions which have relevance to the present.

Example:  kmikemossimsa ["Have you (sg.) worked?"]

Example:  ktschuchambwihilamsa ["Have you (sg.) fallen into the water?"]

4. The Future Tense is used to indicate future actions.

Example:  nihillapewaktsch ["they will be free"]

Example:  lequetsch ["if you (pl.) will say to him"]

STATES

1. The Objective State is used to mark the definiteness of the third person object of some transitive verbs.

Example:  ndahoalawak nehenajungesak ["I love those horses"]

2. The Absolute State is used to mark the indefiniteness of the third person object of some transitive verbs.

Example:  ndahoala nehenajungesak ["I love horses"]

I think this is a good place to stop. The only verbal category left is THEMES; and, since the "theme signs" are the first suffixes to be added to verb stems, THEMES will be a good place to begin the next part of this introduction to verbs.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#28 May-25-2014 02:15:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 6: INTRODUCTION TO VERBS, PART 3


In this part, we will begin to deal with the "modifications" of the verb.

MODIFICATIONS

As you will recall, there are six "modifications" of the Northern Unami noun, three of which can be suffixed to a noun, at any one time, in an unalterable sequence (that is, "diminutive" + "possessive" + no more than one of the remaining four ("plural," "obviative," "absentative," or "locative").

The verb undergoes similar "modifications," by means of suffixes, but with more numerous possibilities. As with the nouns, these suffixes are added to the verb in a set sequence of "positions." There are three such "positions" for nouns, but eight such "positions" for verbs, which accomodate about a dozen "modifications."

POSITION 1 - THEME SIGN

In this suffix position occur the "theme signs" for transitive verbs (TA & TI). The "theme signs" help to designate whether the verb is "Transitive Animate" or "Transitive Inanimate;" and, indicate the "direction" of the verbal action in "Transitive Animate" verbs.

TA Theme 1 - The TA "direct theme sign" (when used) is long "-a-." This "theme sign" indicates that the initial "direction" of the verbal action is "left to right" (subject > verb > object). 

Example:  kpendawa ["you (sg.) hear him"]

Example:  kpendawawak ["you (sg.) hear them"]

TA Theme 2 - The TA "inverse theme sign" is "-ukw-." (The "-w" is sometimes dropped, in SPELLING, when this "theme sign" is at the end of a word.) Of course, the "k"-sound can show up as a "c," "g" or "q," also. This "theme sign" indicates that the initial "direction" of the verbal action is "right to left" (object < verb < subject).

Example:  nmiluk ["she-gives-it-to-me"]

Example:  ktellguna ["he-says-to-us"(incl.)]

TA Theme 3 - The TA "first person object, direct theme sign" is "-i-" (long "i").  Initial verbal action is "left to right" (subject > verb > object) for this "theme sign." These verbs USUALLY have second person
subject and first person object, but sometimes have a third person subject.

Example:  ktahoali ["you (sg.) love me"]

Example:  klikimihimmo ["you (pl.) make me laugh"]

Example:  milite ['when she gives it to me']

TA Theme 4 - The TA "first person subject/second person object, inverse theme sign" is "-l."  Initial verbal action is "right to left" (object < verb < subject).  Object plural suffixes appear in final position.  The subject is ALWAYS first person and the object is ALWAYS second person in these verbs.

Example:  kwangomel ["I greet you (sg.)"]

Example:  kpetekhammolhummo ["I write to you (pl.)"]

TI Theme 1 - This "theme sign" is "-amm-" or "-umm-." It indicates that the verb is TI, and the initial verbal action is "left to right" (subject > verb > object). 

Example:  mbennammen ["I look at it"]

Example:  kmischenummeneen ["we (incl.) receive it"]

TI Theme 2 - This TI "theme sign" is "-oo-" (switching to "-au-" in some forms). Initial verbal action is "left to right" (subject > verb > object).

Example:  kpetoon ["you (sg.) bring it"]

Example:  nowoatoneen ["we (excl.) know it"]

TI Theme 3 - There is NO theme sign for this very small class of TI verbs.  Verbal action is left to right (subject > verb > object).

Example:  nmitschin ["I eat it"]

Example:  kmitschihhenna ["we (incl.) eat it"]

POSITION 2 - DIMINUTIVE and PEJORATIVE

In the Munsee and Southern Unami dialects, verbs can take a "diminutive" suffix after the "theme sign;" and, in Southern Unami, a "pejorative" suffix may be placed in the same suffix position.  (Only one of these suffixes can appear in this position, in any given word.)  However, the "diminutive" suffix is almost never used in Northern Unami verbs, and I haven't noticed any use, whatsoever, of the "pejorative suffix."  As we have seen, there is a "diminutive" suffix in nouns, but the verbs hardly ever show concord with the nouns, in Northern Unami; but, the "diminutive" suffix, "-ti-," DOES occur, rarely.

Example:  pomauchsito ["the little one lives"]

Example:  wulinaksititup ["the little one looks good"]

Next, we will finish the suffix positions, 3-8. That will complete the Introduction to Verbs.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#29 May-25-2014 02:21:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 6: INTRODUCTION TO VERBS, PART 4


As we discussed, in the last part, there are eight suffix positions after the verb stem. The first two, "theme sign" and "diminutive/pejorative," were covered, already. In this part, we will exhibit the final six suffix positions.

Please remember, this lesson serves only to introduce the various categories with which you must become familiar, in order to understand what follows in the subsequent lessons, where everything will be covered in more detail.

POSITION 3 - Obviative & Conjunct 3rd Person Plural

OBVIATIVE

When an AI verb represents the action of an obviative noun, or a TA verb represents the action of, towards or for an obviative noun, the obviative noun is "indexed"--or "indicated"--in the verb, by means of the "obviative" suffix, which is "-li-" (when further suffixes are added to the obviative suffix), or just "-l" or "-ll" (when it is the final suffix on the verb).

Example:  wulelendamelit ["he (obv.) rejoices"]

Example:  owoahawall ["she knows him (obv.)" or "she knows them (obv.)"]

CONJUNCT 3RD PERSON PLURAL

The 3rd person plural suffix for verbs occurring in their conjunct forms is "-chti-" or "-hitti-."

Example:  achpichtit ["they are there"]

Example:  mecheelhittit ["they are many"]

POSITION 4 - Negative, Prohibitive & Future Imperative

NEGATIVE

The negative suffix shows up in various forms, ALWAYS marked by a "-w-," in old Northern Unami.

Example:  nmikemossiwi ["I do not work"]

Example:  kpendawiwip ["you did not hear me"]

PROHIBITIVE

There are a few "prohibitive" suffixes, which will be shown, in detail, in the following lessons. Here we show a couple. Verbs in the prohibitive mode are ALWAYS preceded by the particle, "katschi" ['don't'].

Example:  katschi lissihan ["don't do it" (you-sg.)]

Example:  katschi pennawachtihek ["don't look at each other" (you-pl.)]

FUTURE IMPERATIVE

The future imperative mode takes the suffixes, "-m-" (in this Position) plus "-e" (of Position 8). {When used, Position 5 suffixes are inserted between the "-m-" and the "-e."

Example:  witalamome ["you must sing with me"]

Example:  lime ["you must tell me"]

POSITION 5 - Bound Pronouns

The many, many bound pronoun suffixes must be dealt with in future lessons, but they all occupy Position 5, and here are some examples. In the Independent Order, the bound pronouns take prefixes, as well as suffixes.

Example:  ngauwihhenna ["we (excl.) sleep"]

Example:  kwitschewanewo ["you (pl.) go with him"]

POSITION 6 - Preterite and Imperfect Tenses

PRETERITE

The Preterite Tense ("Past Tense") suffix is "-pann-," (before other suffixes) or "-p" (when it is the final suffix).

Example:  littopannik ["they said to each other"]

Example:  wulamallessop ["she was well"]

IMPERFECT

The Imperfect Tense indicates a past action which has relevance for the present. The suffix is "-shann-" (s and h pronounced separately) before other suffixes, but "-sa" when it is the final suffix.

Example:  lauchsichtitshanne ["if they have lived"]

Example:  mbamsa ["I have come"]

POSITION 7 - Plural and Absentative

PLURAL

Plural nouns are indexed ("indicated") in the verbs, by means of the suffixes "-k" (for animate nouns) and "-l" (for inanimate nouns).  (Except for conjunct 3rd person plurals (see Position 3, above.)

Example:  pommissowak ["they (anim.) walk"]

Example:  tepikenol ["they (inan.) are full grown"]

ABSENTATIVE

The absentative suffixes are the same as for nouns.  In Northern Unami, these suffixes are rarely placed on both the noun and the verb which goes with it. They are placed on one or the other, as the speaker wills.  Verbal examples:

Example:  nihillawunga ["he kills him (obv.)"]

Example:  wtanghittonunga ["he lost them (inan.)"]

POSITION 8 - Subjunctive and Future Imperative

SUBJUNCTIVE

The subjunctive mode suffix is "-e."

Example:  wulahellate ["if he has her"]

Example:  gleninke ["if he keeps it"]

FUTURE IMPERATIVE (See Position 4)

In addition to these eight positions, some grammarians add a ninth, for the "future marker" ("-tsch"), which always goes at the end of words.

This concludes Lesson 6. 

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#30 Jun-02-2014 10:04:am

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 1


This lesson will cover the Animate Intransitive (AI) verbs.  Here we will "conjugate" a typical AI verb.  These conjugations are called "paradigms."  Now we will begin to see how the various categories outlined in the Introduction are expressed by means of adding prefixes and suffixes to the verb stem.  You will note that the personal pronoun prefixes attach themselves to verbs exactly the same way as they do to nouns, but, in verbs, the 3rd person singular is often expressed by means of a suffix, rather than by a prefix.  When necessary, parenthetical notes will be provided to supply additional information.

Let's begin with the verb, "pohonasin" ['to drum'].

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - UNSPECIFIED TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

(ONLY verbs in the "Independent Order" require prefixes.)

m'bohonasi ['I drum']

kpohonasi ['you (sg.) drum']

pohonasu ['he drums'] (Note that the final "-u" is the
3rd person singular suffix, here.)

m'bohonasihhenna ['we (excl.) drum']

kpohonasihhenna ['we (incl.) drum']

kpohonasihhimmo ['you (pl.) drum']

pohonasuwak ['they drum']

pohonasin ['there is drumming going on' OR 'people (indef.) are drumming']  (This is the "indefinite person" form. 

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - UNSPECIFIED TENSE - NEGATIVE FORM

matta m'bohonasiwi ['I do not drum']

matta kpohonasiwi ['you (sg.) do not drum']

matta pohonasuwi ['he does not drum']

matta mbohonasiwihhenna ['we (excl.) do not drum']

matta kpohonasiwihhenna ['we (incl.) do not drum']

matta kpohonasiwihhimmo ['you (pl.) do not drum']

matta pohonasuwiwak ['they do not drum']

matta pohonasiwin ['there is no drumming']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - PRETERITE TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

m'bohonasihump ['I drummed']

kpohonasihump ['you (sg.) drummed']

pohonasop ['he drummed']

m'bohonasihhennap ['we (excl.) drummed']

kpohonasihhennap ['we (incl.) drummed']

kpohonasihhimmoap ['you (pl.) drummed']

pohonasopannik ['they drummed']

pohonasinep ['there was drumming going on' OR 'people (indef.) were drumming']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - PRETERITE TENSE - NEGATIVE FORM

matta m'bohonasiwihump ['I did not drum']

matta kpohonasiwihump ['you (sg.) did not drum']

matta pohonasuwip ['he did not drum']

matta m'bohonasiwihhennap ['we (excl.) did not drum']

matta kpohonasiwihhennap ['we (incl.) did not drum']

matta kpohonasiwihhimmoap [you (pl.) did not drum']

matta pohonasuwipannik ['they did not drum']

matta pohonasiwinep ['there was no drumming going on' OR 'people (indef.) were not drumming']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - IMPERFECT TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

m'bohonasimsa ['I have been drumming']

kpohonasimsa ['you (sg.) have been drumming']

pohonasuchsa ['he has been drumming']

m'bohonasihummennaxa ['we (excl.) have been drumming']

kpohonasihummennaxa ['we (incl.) have been drumming']

kpohonasihummoxa ['you (pl.) have been drumming']

pohonasuchshannik ['they have been drumming']

pohonasiwinesa ['there has not been drumming going on' OR 'people (indef.) have not been drumming']

(There exist NO examples of Imperfect Tense verbs in the "Negative" Form, IN THE INDEPENDENT ORDER.  We COULD speak and write "theoretical" negative forms, merely by inserting the appropriate Position 4 suffix.  For instance, we COULD say, "matta kpohonasiwihummennaxa" ['we (incl.) have not been drumming']; but it is really only necessary to place a negative particle in front of the "Positive" forms, in order to make them "negative" {for example, "matta m'bohonasihummennaxa" = 'we (ex.) have not been drumming'}.

INDEPENDENT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - FUTURE TENSE

To express the "Future Tense" simply add the future marker ("-tsch") to the "Unspecified Tense" forms.

Example: m'bohonasitsch ['I shall drum']

Example: matta pohonasuwiwaktsch ['they will not drum']

Next time we will cover some alternative suffixes and affixes.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-02-2014 12:46:pm)

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#31 Jun-02-2014 10:05:am

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 2


Earlier, we learned that the Independent Order, Indicative Mode, Animate Intransitive verbs take the following prefixes and Position 5 pronoun suffixes:

1st person singular = n-

2nd person singular = k-

3rd person singular = -w (usually written as "-u," "-uch" or "-o.")


1st person plural (exclusive) = n'- - - -hhenna

1st person plural (inclusive) = k- - - -hhenna

2nd person plural = k- - - -hhimmo (or -hhummo)

3rd person plural = -wak = -w- + -ak (3rd person suffix + Position 7 animate plural suffix)

There are, however, some variant forms of the 1st and 2nd person plural suffixes which should be mentioned.  Here are the alternate forms:

1st person plural = -hhummenna (in the unspecified tense) and -hhummennap OR -hhummennakup (in the preterite tense)

2nd person plural = -hhummoap or -hhummoakup / -hhimmoap or -hhimmoakup (in the preterite tense)

In Southern Unami there are phonetic rules which govern when these variant forms are used, but in Northern Unami the choice of ending seems to be up to the speaker.  That is, their use is interchangeable.

Finally, the 1st and 2nd person endings can express the representation of "many people" by adding the "collective plural marker" ("-ook").  That is, "-hhennook" ('the whole bunch of us') and "hhimmook" ('the whole bunch of you').  The 3rd person uses a different kind of "collective
plural marker."  This affix is written in two ways:  "-lt-" or "-tt-."  For instance, "ewak" ('they go') becomes "eltowak" ('the whole bunch of them go').  Also, "mawoahattuwak" ('the whole bunch of them are starving').  This "collective plural marker" can be used with the indefinite person forms, also.  For example, "eltin" ('there are many going' OR 'many people (indef.) are going').

This part is a little shorter than usual.  I had not planned it this way, but looking at what's here, I think we should leave the Subordinative Mode of the Animate Intransitive verbs until next time. There's a lot to take in, in these first two parts.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-02-2014 12:48:pm)

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#32 Jun-02-2014 10:07:am

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 3


In this part, we will deal with the "Subordinative Mode" of the "Independent Order."

The "Subordinative Mode" is used to form "partcular kinds" of subordinate (or "dependent") clauses.  We say "particular kinds" because MOST subordinate clauses are formed by using the "Modes" of the "Conjunct Order."  For instance, in the sentence, "I tell you truly, that she will come," the subordinate clause is "that she will come."  In Lenape, this KIND of subordinate clause is expressed by verbs in the "Subordinative Mode," thus: "wtellitsch paan" ('that she will come').  This is because "particular" words, such as "wtelli" ['that-she'], "ngatta" ['I-want], "na" ['then'], and a few others, are most often used with verbs in the Subordinative Mode.  Note that the pronoun prefixes (n-, k-, w-, etc.) are attached to the preverb, when a preverb is used
with the verb ["ngatta pennammen" - 'I want to look at it].

The Subordinative Mode is often used in clauses expressing the action of "free pronouns" ["ni n'dappin" - 'I I-am-there' / "nan wtappin" - 'that-one he-is-there'].  With these, pronoun prefixes are attached to the verb.

The Subordinative Mode is also employed when a primary verbal phrase (main clause) requires a secondary verbal phrase. In these cases, the secondary verbal phrase is in the Subordinative Mode.  ["ntellelemau gauwin" - 'I let her sleep' / "achwat nischitkwineen" - 'it is difficult for us (excl.) to kneel']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - UNSPECIFIED TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

mbaan ['I come']

kpaan ['you (sg.) come']

paan ['he comes' OR 'she comes']

mbaaneen ['we (excl.) come']

kpaaneen ['we (incl.) come']

kpaanewo ['you (pl.) come']

paanewo ['they come']

paan ['people (indef.) are coming']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - UNSPECIFIED TENSE - NEGATIVE FORM

matta mbaawun ['I do not come']

matta kpaawun ['you (sg.) do not come']

matta paawun ['she' or 'he does not come']

matta mbaawuneen ['we (excl.) do not come']

matta kpaawuneen ['we (incl.) do not come]

matta kpaawunewo ['you (pl.) do not come']

matta paawunewo ['they do not come']

matta paawun [(people (indef.) are not coming']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - PRETERITE TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

mbaanep ['I came']

kpaanep ['you came']

paanep ['he came' OR 'she came']

m'baaneenaap ['we (excl.) came']

kpaaneenaap ['we (incl.) came']

kpaanewoap ['you (pl.) came']

paanewoap ['they came']

{Note that the final letters, "-woap," form ONE syllable, pronounced like "WAWP."}

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - PRETERITE TENSE - NEGATIVE FORM

atta mbaawunep ['I did not come'']

atta kpaawunep ['you (sg.) did not come']

atta paawunep ['he' or 'she did not come']

atta mbaawuneenaap ['we (excl.) did not come']

atta kpaawuneenaap ['we (incl.) did not come']

atta kpaawunewoap ['you (pl.) did not come']

atta paawunewoap ['they did not come']

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - IMPERFECT TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

mbaanesa ['I have come']

kpaanesa ['you (sg.) have come']

paanesa ['he' or 'she has come']

{Note: Other Subordinative Mode forms in the Imperfect Tense have not been found, though I suppose we COULD write out "theoretical" forms, if we so desired.  We don't!  The Preterite Tense may be used, instead.}

INDEPENDENT ORDER - SUBORDINATIVE MODE - FUTURE TENSE

As with the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order, it is only necessary to add the future marker, "-tsch," to the Unspecified Tense forms of the Subordinative Mode, in order to make the Future Tense.

Example:  kpatsch ['you (sg.) will come']

Next time we will begin AI verbs in the Conjunct Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#33 Jun-02-2014 12:23:pm

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 4


CONJUNCT ORDER

As stated, previously, MOST subordinate phrases (dependent clauses) are expressed by using verbs in the Conjunct Order.  There are five "Modes" in the Conjunct Order, which are separately employed to express phrases which begin with the words for "why" {Conjuct Indicative Mode}; "if" {Subjunctive Mode}; "when" {Changed Subjunctive Mode}; "as" {Changed
Conjunct Mode}; and, "who" {Participle}.  There IS some overlap in meaning in the middle three "Modes" just mentioned, but these five "key words" provide a very good device for remembering which mode to select when reading, speaking or writing.

Verbs in the Conjunct Order take NO prefixes.  All persons (bound pronouns) are expressed in the Conjunct suffixes.

ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE - CONJUNCT ORDER - INDICATIVE MODE - UNSPECIFIED TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

This "Mode" is used with the particle, "quatsch" ('why').  We conjugate the vowel-ending verb stem, "pommissi-" ('to walk along').  Verb stems ending in "-i-," often add a connective "-j-" before the Position 5 personal pronoun suffixes, in order to accentuate the proper pronunciation; although, sometimes the "-j-" is left out.  Examples:

Quatsch pommissija?  ["Why do I walk along?"] 

Quatsch pommissijan?  ["Why do you (sg.) walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissit?  ["Why does he (or she) walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissijenk?  ["Why do we (excl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissijanq'?  ["Why do we (incl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissijeek?  ["Why do you (pl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissichtit?  ["Why do they walk along?"]

Quatsch pommissink?  ["Why are people (indef.) walking along?"]

Please note that AI verbs whose stems end in most consonants use the suffix, "-k," for 3rd person singular forms. If the stem ends in "-m" or "-n," the "-k" is added directly, and those in "-m" change the "-m" to "-n."  ["wewoatam" - "to be wise' becomes "wewoatank" - 'he is wise,' in the Conjunct Order.]  Verb stems ending in all other consonants add a connective short vowel before the final "-k." ["angel" - 'to be dead' becomes "angeluk" - 'she is dead,' in the Conjunct Order.]

NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch matta pommissiwaan?  ["Why don't I walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiwann?  ["Why don't you (sg.) walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiq'?  ["Why doesn't she (or he) walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiwenk?  ["Why don't we (excl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiwanq'?  ["Why don't we (incl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiweek?  ["Why don't you (pl.) walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissichtik?  ["Why don't they walk along?"]

Quatsch matta pommissiwink?  ["Why aren't people (indef.) walking along?"]

Note: Verb stems ending in consonants use the suffix, "-oq'," for 3rd person singular forms. ["wewoatam" - 'to be wise' becomes "matta wewoatamoq" - 'he (or she) is not wise.']

PRETERITE TENSE

The Preterite Tense, in the Conjunct Indicative Mode, in both Positive and Negative Forms, is expressed simply by adding the suffix, "-up," to any form of the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  Quatsch pommissitup?  ["Why did he (or she) walk along?"]

Example:  Quatsch pommissiwenkup?  ["Why didn't we (excl.) walk along?"]

IMPERFECT TENSE

The Imperfect Tense is expressed simply by adding the suffix, "-sa," to
any form of the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  Quatsch pommissijeeksa?  ["Why have you (pl.) walked along?"]

Example:  Quatsch atta pommissichtiksa?  ["Why haven't they walked along?"]

FUTURE TENSE

The Future Tense is expressed simply by adding the future marker, "-tsch," to any form of the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  Quatsch pommissijannetsch?  ["Why will you (sg.) walk along?"]

Example:  Quatsch matta pommissiwequetsch?  ["Why won't you (pl.) walk along?"]


ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE - CONJUNCT ORDER - SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

The Subjunctive Mode is formed by adding the Position 8 suffix, "-e," to the forms of the Conjunct Indicative Mode.  HOWEVER, the 1st person singular adds an "-n-" before the Subjunctive suffix; and, the Preterite and Imperfect tenses use the full suffixes, "-pann-" and "-shann-," respectively.

UNSPECIFIED TENSE - POSITIVE FORM

pommissijane  ["if I walk along"] - (long "a")

pommissijanne  ["if you (sg.) walk along"] - (short "a")

pommissite  ["if she (or he) walks along"]

pommissijenke  ["if we (excl.) walk along"]

pommissijanque  ["if we (incl.) walk along"]

pommissijeque  ["if you (pl.) walk along"]

pommissichtite  ["if they walk along"]

pommissinke  ["if someone (indef.) is walking along"]

UNSPECIFIED TENSE - NEGATIVE FORM

atta pommissiwane  ["if I don't walk along"]

atta pommissiwanne  ["if you (sg.) don't walk along"]

atta pommissique  ["if she (or he) doesn't walk along"]

atta pommssiwenke  ["if we (excl.) don't walk along"]

atta pommisiwanque  ["if we (incl.) don't walk along"]

atta pommissiweque  ["if you (pl.) don't walk along"]

atta pommissichtique  ["if they don't walk along"]

atta pommissiwinke  ["if someone (indef.) isn't walking along"]

PRETERITE TENSE

Simply insert the suffix, "-pann-," before the suffix, "-e." of the Subjunctive Mode forms in the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  pommissijaanpanne  ["if I walked along"]

Example:  matta pommissiweq'panne  ["if you (pl.) didn't walk along"]

IMPERFECT TENSE

Simply insert the suffix, "-shann," before the suffix, "-e," of the Subjunctive Mode forms in the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  pommissichtitshanne  [if they have walked along]

Example:  matta pommissiwanq'shanne  [if we (incl.) have not walked along]

Note: In many of the forms shown with the ending, "-q'," the Moravians often just write "-k." The opposite is true, as well.

FUTURE TENSE

Simply suffix the "future marker," "-tsch," to the Subjunctive Mode forms of the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  pommissijenketsch  ["if we (excl.) will walk along"]

Example:  pommissichtiquetsch  ["if they will not walk along"]

Next time we will cover the remaining three modes of the Conjunct Order (Changed Subjunctive, Changed Conjunct and Participle).

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#34 Jun-02-2014 12:45:pm

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 5


In this part, we will cover the other three "Modes" of Animate Intransitive verbs in the Conjunct Order; namely: Changed Subjunctive Mode, Changed Conjunct Mode and Participle.

INITIAL CHANGE

One phenomenon these three "Modes" have in common is called "initial change." Many verbs whose first ("initial") vowel is a short undergo a "change," wherein the first (or "initial") vowel becomes a LONG "e," when those verbs are used in these three "Modes."

Here are some examples of initial change, contrasting Conjunct Indicative forms (which do not undergo "initial change") with Participles (which DO undergo initial change):

gattopuit ["he is hungry"] 

getopuit ["he who is hungry"]

pommauchsitschik ["they live"]

pemauchsitschik ["they who live"]

ptuksit ["he is round"]

peetgussit  ["he who is round"]

Verbs whose intitial vowels are "long," DO NOT CHANGE IN THIS WAY.  The words which undergo "initial change" must be learned by experience, for two reasons: 1 - Because there ARE quite a few verbs with short initial vowels that do NOT change to long "e," if followed by "h" or "ch," and, 2 - Because one can't always tell whether an inital vowel is long or short, using the Moravian spelling system.

The AI verbs meaning "come" and "go" undergo a unique "initial change."  Here are examples of the Conjunct Indicative Mode and Participle forms:

aat  ["she goes"]

ejaat  ["she who goes"]

paat  ["he comes"]

pejaat  ["he who comes"]

When preceded by a preverb, the "initial change" of verbs which undergo it is "transferred" to the preverb.  Example:

getopuit  ["she who is hungry"]; BUT...

eli gattopuit  ["as she is hungry"]  (long "e" on "eli")

CHANGED SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

The AI verbs in this "Mode" are spelled exactly the same as in the "Subjunctive Mode," except for those which undergo "initial change."  This "Mode" is distinguished by expressing the "key word," "when." Most verbs in this "Mode" are preceded by the preverb, "enda" ['when']; but
they sometimes stand alone. If they are not preceded by "enda" ['when'], and they don't show "initial change," the only way to distinguish between the Subjunctive and Changed Subjunctive is by "context."

Here are some examples of the Changed Subjuctive Mode:

pesucquijaane  ["when I get up from lying down"]

enda lissichtitpanne  ["when they acted"]

TENSES

The Preterite and Imperfect Tenses are formed just the same as shown in the previous Part of this lesson.  The Future Tense, here, and everywhere in the Conjunct Order, is formed by placing the future marker, "-tsch," at the end of each Unspecified Tense form.

CHANGED CONJUNCT MODE

In this "Mode," the verb forms are exactly like those in the Conjunct Indicative Mode, EXCEPT for those verbs which show "initial change."  ALL verbs in this "Mode" are preceded by preverbs--most often by "eli" ['as'].  (Like English, the Lenape word for "as" can also connote the meanings, "because," "how" and "what," and others, besides.)

Examples:

eli mikemossijann  ["as you (sg.) work"]

eli mikemossijeek  ["as you (pl.) work"]

PARTICIPLE

Participles are exactly like the Conjunct Indicative Mode forms, EXCEPT those which show "initial change;" those which add an "e-" before verbs beginning with "h-" and "l-;" and those which are third person "plural," "obviative" or "absentative"--ALL of which add the Position 7 endings.  Other Participles can be distinguished from the Conjunct Indicative forms by the fact that they are not preceded by the "key" word, "quatsch" ['why'].

Here are some examples:

ehakiheet  ["she who plants"]

gewitpannik  ["they who slept"]

sakimawatpanna  ["that deceased one who was a chief"]

epijanq'  ["we (incl.) who are here"]

kikehuwetschik  ["they who effect cures"]

elauchsijann  ["you (sg.) who live"]

The possibilities are endless!  Next time, we should wrap up this Lesson, when we cover AI verbs in the Imperative Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#35 Jun-02-2014 06:20:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 7: ANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS, PART 6


In this part, we will cover Animate Intransitive verbs in the three Modes of the Imperative Order (Ordinary Imperative Mode; Prohibitive Mode; Future Imperative Mode).

ORDINARY IMPERATIVE MODE

The Position 5 suffixes used in this Mode are:

2nd person singular - "-l" (for verb stems ending in vowels) or "-i" (for verb stems ending in consonants)

2nd person plural - "k" (for vowel-ending stems) or "-ook" (for consonant-ending stems)

1st & 2nd person singular {you (sg.) and me} - "-tam" (after vowels) or "-otam" (after consonants)

1st person singular & 2nd person plural {you (pl.) and me} - "-tamook" (after vowels) or "-otamook" (after consonants)  Example (using "mikemossi-"):

mikemossil  ["Work." - you (sg.)]

mikemossik  ["Work." - you (pl.)]

mikemossitam  ["Let us work." - you (sg.) & me]

mikemossitamook  ["Let us work." - you (pl.) & me]

Example (using "aschowill"):

aschowilli  ["Swim." - you (sg.)]

aschowillook  ["Swim." - you (pl.)]

aschowillotam  ["Let us swim." - you (sg.) & me"]

aschowillotamook  ["Let us swim. - you (pl.) & me]

Note: All those forms ending in "-k," above, should be pronounced with a whispered voiceless "w" after the "-k."

A kind of "imperative" can be formed by employing the Conjunct Order, Subjunctive Mode, Positive Form, Future Tense, 3rd person forms, as follows:

mikemossitetsch  ["Let him (or her) work."]

aschowillhittetsch  ["Let them swim."]

PROHIBITIVE MODE

All verbs in this Mode are preceded by the particle, "katschi" ('Don't'). The Position 4 endings are:

2nd person singular - "-han"

3rd person singular - "-hitsch"

2nd person plural - "-heek"

3rd person plural - "-chtihitsch"

Examples:

katschi aschowillhan  ["Don't swim." - you (sg.)]

katschi mikemossihitsch  ["Don't let him work."]

katschi aschowillheek  ["Don't swim." - you (pl.)]

katschi mikemossichtihitsch  ["Don't let them work."]

FUTURE IMPERATIVE MODE

This Mode has only second person forms, with the suffixes, "-me" and "-mowe," for singular and plural, respectively.

Examples:

mikemossime  ["You (sg.) must work." (at a particular time in the future)]

mikemossimowe  ["You (pl.) must work." (at a particular time in the future)]

This concludes the lesson on Animate Intransitive verbs.  In the next lesson, we will cover the Inanimate Intransitive verbs.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#36 Jun-03-2014 08:00:pm

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 8:  INANIMATE INTRANSITIVE VERBS


In this lesson, we will cover the Inanimate Intransitive verbs. There are fewer forms to be found in II verbs than are in the other verb types. Having inanimate subjects, these verbs have, naturally, ONLY third person forms.  Besides this, there are no II verbs in the Imperative Order, nor in the Imperfect Tense.  Here we conjugate the verb, "wundpeu" ('it leaks'):

INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE OR SUBORDINATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

wundpeu  ['it leaks']

wundpewall  ['they (inan.) leak']

NEGATIVE FORM

atta wundpewi  ['it does not leak']

atta wundpewiwall  ['they (inan.) do not leak']

PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

wundpeep  ['it leaked']

wundpepannil  ['they (inan.) leaked']

NEGATIVE FORM

atta wundpewip  ['it did not leak']

atta wundpewipannil  ['they did not leak']

FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

wundpeutsch  ['it will leak']

wundpewalltsch  ['they (inan.) will leak']

NEGATIVE FORM

atta wundpewitsch  ['it will not leak']

atta wundpewiwalltsch  ['they (inan.) will not leak']

CONJUNCT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

quatsch wundpek  ['Why does it leak?' OR 'Why do they (inan.) leak'?]

NEGATIVE FORM

quatsch atta wundpeq'  ['Why doesn't it leak?' OR 'Why don't they leak'?]

PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

quatsch wundpekup  ['Why did it leak?" OR 'Why did they (inan.) leak?"]

NEGATIVE FORM

quatsch atta wudpekwup  ['Why didn't it leak?' OR 'Why didn't they (inan.) leak?']

SUBJUNCTIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

wundpeke  ['if it leaks' OR 'if they (inan.) leak']

NEGATIVE FORM

atta wundpeque  ['if it doesn't leak' OR 'if they don't leak']

PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

wundpekpanne  ['if it leaked' OR 'if they (inan.) leaked']

NEGATIVE FORM

atta wundpekwpanne  ['if it didn't leak' OR 'if they (inan.) didn't leak']

FUTURE TENSE

Simply add "-tsch," the future marker, to the indicative mode forms.

CHANGED CONJUNCT MODE, CHANGED SUBJUNCTIVE MODE AND PARTICIPLE

These modes show "initial change," as expected.

eli wundpek  ['as it (or 'they') leak(s)']

weendpeke  ['when it (or 'they') leak(s)']

weendpekil  ['they (inan.) which leak']

Note how the plural participle takes the inanimate plural suffix.

Other forms of these Modes take all the regular forms you would expect.

Transitive Animate verbs will be the subject of the next series of lessons.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#37 Jun-06-2014 02:46:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 1


In this lesson, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 1 verbs.  The significant characteristic of TA Theme 1 verbs is that they ALL have an animate third person object.  The subject of these verbs may be animate first, second, third, or indefinite person, singular or plural.

In this part, we will deal only with the TA Theme 1 verbs in the ABSOLUTE STATE. You will recall, from Lesson 6, that the "Absolute State" is used when the object of the verb is not definite.  A phrase like "I hear some people" shows an indefinite object ("some people").  The Absolute State would be used to express this.  A phrase like "I hear those people" would be expressed in the "Objective State," its object being "definite" ("those people").

The Absolute State is not used in subordinate phrases (dependent clauses), therefore it is not found in the Subordinative Mode nor any Mode of the Conjunct Order. Nor does it have any indefinite subject forms.  It is used much less frequently than the Objective State, but must be learned, nevertheless.  Here, we will conjugate a TA Theme 1 verb, in its Absolute State, in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order.  Note that a single form is used for both singular and plural objects.


TA THEME 1 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, ABSOLUTE STATE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendawa - "I hear somebody" (or "some people")

kpendawa - "you (sg.) hear somebody" (or "some people")

pendaweu - "he (or "she") hears somebody" (or "some people")

mbendawahhenna - "we (excl.) hear somebody" (or "some people")

kpendawahhenna - "we (incl.) hear somebody" (or "some people")

kpendawahhummo - "you (pl.) hear somebody" (or "some people")

pendawewak - "they hear somebody" (or "some people")


NEGATIVE FORM

atta mbendawawi - "I do not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta kpendawawi - "you (sg.) do not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta pendaweewi - "he (or "she") does not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta mbendawawihhenna - "we (excl.) do not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta kpendawawihhenna - "we (incl.) do not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta kpendawawihhimmo - "you (pl.) do not hear somebody" (or "some people")

atta pendawewiwak - "they do not hear somebody" (or "some people")


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendawahump - "I heard somebody" / "some people"

kpendawahump - "you (sg.) heard somebody" / "some people"

pendaweep - "he (or "she") heard somebody" / "some people"

mbendawahhennap - "we (excl.) heard somebody" / "some people"

kpendawahhennap - "we (incl.) heard somebody" / "some people"

kpendawahhummoap - "you (pl.) heard somebody" / "some people"

pendawepannik - "they heard somebody" / "some people"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta m'bendawawihump - "I did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta kpendawawihump - "you (sg.) did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta pendawewip - "he (or "she") did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta m'bendawawihhennap - "we (excl.) did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta kpendawawihhennap - "we (incl.) did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta kpendawawihhimmoap - you (pl.) did not hear somebody" / "some people"

atta pendawewipannik - "they did not hear somebody" / "some people"


The IMPERFECT TENSE, in the Absolute State, has thus far been found in just one form of one TA verb in the extant Moravian works. Therefore, while we could easily write out a theoretical paradigm showing such a TA Theme 1 verb in the Imperfect Tense, there isn't much point to it. These forms had simply fallen into disuse by the Moravian period.


The FUTURE TENSE is formed simply by adding the future marker, "-tsch," to the Unspecified Tense forms--with one exception:  The third person singular form would be "pendaweuchtsch."


You will note, finally, that these Absolute State forms use the same suffixes as the Animate Intransitive verbs in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order.  This is NOT the case with the Objective State forms, as you will see in the next part of this lesson.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#38 Jun-06-2014 02:49:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 2


In this part, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 1 verbs, in the "Objective State."  As stated previously, the distinction between the "Absolute" and "Objective" States shows up in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order.

To illustrate, clearly, the differences between these two States, we will conjugate the same verb in this part that we used in the first part.


TA THEME 1 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, OBJECTIVE STATE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendawa - "I hear him" (or "her")

mbendawawak - "I hear them"

kpendawa - "you (sg.) hear him" (or "her")

kpendawawak - "you (sg.) hear them"

pendawawall - "he (or "she") hears him" (or "her" or "them")

mbendawawuna - "we (excl.) hear him" (or "her")

mbendawawunanak - "we (excl.) hear them"

kpendawawuna - "we (incl.) hear him" (or "her")

kpendawawunanak - "we (incl.) hear them"

kpendawawa - "you (pl.) hear him" (or "her")

kpendawawawak - "you (pl.) hear them"

pendawawawall - "they hear him" (or "her" or "them")

pendawa - "someone (or "some people") hear(s) him" (or "her")   {This can also be rendered in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") is heard"}

pendawawak - "someone (or "some people") hear(s) them"  {This can also be rendered in the Passive Voice:  "they are heard"}


NEGATIVE FORM

atta mbendawawi - "I do not hear him" (or "her")

atta mbendawawiwak - "I do not hear them"

atta kpendawawi - "you (sg.) do not hear him" (or "her"

atta kpendawawiwak - "you (sg.) do not hear him" (or "her")

atta pendawawiwall - "he (or "she") does not hear him" (or "her" or "them")

atta mbendawawiwuna - "we (excl.) do not hear him" (or "her")

atta mbendawawiwunanak - "we (excl.) do not hear them"

atta kpendawawiwuna - "we (incl.) do not hear him" (or "her")

atta kpendawawiwunanak - "we (incl.) do not hear them"

atta kpendawawiwa - "you (pl.) do not hear him" (or "her")

atta kpendawawiwawak - "you (pl.) do not hear them"

atta pendawawiwawall - "they do not hear him" (or "her" or "them")

atta pendawawi - "someone (or "some people") do(es) not hear him" (or "her")  {This can also be rendered in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") is not heard"}

atta pendawawiwak - "someone (or "some people") do(es) not hear them"  {This can also be rendered in the Passive Voice:  "they are not heard"}


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

mbendawap - "I heard him" (or "her")

mbendawapannik - "I heard them"

kpendawap - "you (sg.) heard him" (or "her")

kpendawapannik - "you (sg.) heard them"

pendawapannil - "he heard him" (or "her" or "them")  {As always, when subject and object are both 3rd person the  object is OBVIATIVE, and can be singular or plural.}

mbendawawunap - "we (excl.) heard him" (or "her")

mbendawawunapannik - "we (excl.) heard them"

kpendawawunap - "we (incl.) heard him" (or "her")

kpendawawunapannik - "we (incl.) heard them"

kpendawawap - "you (pl.) heard him" (or "her")

kpendawawapannik - "you (pl.) heard them"

pendawawapannil - "they heard him" (or "her" or "them")  {As always, when subject and object are both 3rd person the object is OBVIATIVE, and can be singular or plural.}

pendawap - "someone (or "some people") heard him" (or "her")

pendawapannik - "someone (or "some people") heard them"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

Simply insert the negative suffix, "-wi-," after the first "-wa-" in the preterite forms just given.

We have not, to date, come across any TA verbs in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order using IMPERFECT TENSE forms.

Please note that the FUTURE TENSE of TA Theme 1 verbs, in the Objective State of the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order, can be formed simply by adding the future marker, "-tsch," onto the end of the Unspecified Tense forms.

Next time we will cover the Subordinative Mode of the Independent Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#39 Jun-06-2014 02:53:pm

sschkaak
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Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 3


In this part, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 1 verbs in the Subordinative Mode of the Independent Order.  For this Mode, we will conjugate the verb stem, "ahoala-" ('love').

TA THEME 1 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, SUBORDINATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

ndahoalan - "I love him" (or "her" or "them")

ktahoalan - "you (sg.) love him" (or "her" or "them")

wtahoalan - "he (or "she") loves her" (or "him" or "them")

ndahoalaneen - "we (excl.) love him" (or "her" or "them")

ktahoalaneen - "we (incl.) love her" (or "him" or "them")

ktahoalanewo - "you (pl.) love him" (or "her" or "them")

wtahoalanewo - "they love her" (or "him" or "them")

ahoalan - "someone loves (or "some people love") him (or "her" or
"them")  {Or, in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") is loved"}


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta ndahoalawun - "I do not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta ktahoalawun - "you (sg.) do not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta wtahoalawun - "she (or "he") does not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta ndahoalawuneen - "we (excl.) do not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta ktahoalawuneen - "we (incl.) do not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta ktahoalawunewo - "you (pl.) do not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta wtahoalawunewo - "they do not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta ahoalawun - "someone does not (or "some people do not") love him" (or
"her" or "them")  {Or, in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") is not loved" or "they are not loved"}


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

ndahoalanep - "I loved her" (or "him" or "them")

ktahoalanep - "you (sg.) loved him" (or "her" or "them")

wtahoalanep - "she (or "he") loved him" (or "her" or "them")

ndahoalaneenep - "we (excl.) loved her" (or "him" or "them")

ktahoalaneenep - "we (incl.) loved him" (or "her" or "them")

ktahoalanewoap - "you (pl.) loved her" (or "him" or "them")

wtahoalanewoap - "they loved him" (or "her" or "them")

ahoalanep - "someone (or "some people") loved her" (or "him" or "them")  {Or, in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") was loved" or "they were loved"}


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

matta ndahoalawunep - "I did not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta ktahoalawunep - "you (sg.) did not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta wtahoalawunep - "he (or "she") did not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta ndahoalawuneenep - "we (excl.) did not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta ktahoalawuneenep - "we (incl.) did not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta ktahoalawunewoap - "you (pl.) did not love him" (or "her" or "them")

matta wtahoalawunewoap - "they did not love her" (or "him" or "them")

matta ahoalawunep - "someone (or "some people") did not love him" (or "her" or
"them")  {Or, in the Passive Voice:  "he (or "she") was not loved" or "they were not loved"}


There are no IMPERFECT TENSE forms in the  Subordinative Mode of TA verbs.


FUTURE TENSE

Once again, the Future Tense is formed simply by suffixing the future marker, "-tsch," to the Positive Forms of the Unspecified Tense.

Example:  ktahoalawuneentsch - "we (incl.) will not love him" (or "her" or "them")


NOTES

Take note of the fact that the suffixes used in the Subordinative Mode of TA Theme 1 verbs are the same as those used for AI verbs in the Subordinative Mode.  This is a good way to remember them.

Note also that there are NO "obviative" suffixes used in the Subordinative Mode.


In the next part, we will begin to cover TA Theme 1 verbs in the Conjunct Order.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#40 Jun-06-2014 02:56:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 4


In this part, we will cover the Conjunct Order of the Theme 1 Transitive Animate verbs in the Positive Form of the Unspecified Tense.  Because of the very close similarity of the forms in the five Modes of the Conjunct Order, we will display all five Modes, together.  This will provide some relief from the monotonous conjugations of prior lessons, while allowing us to see the subtle differences in meaning produced by the various Modes.  We will use the verb, "to shut him (or "her") in."  The examples given will be in the following order, from top to bottom: Indicative Mode ("why"); Changed Conjunct Mode ("as"); Subjunctive Mode ("if"); Changed Subjunctive Mode ("when"); Participle ("who").

You will note that this particular verb undergoes "initial change" in a semi-irregular way.  The "initial change" takes place on the very short schwa vowel between the first two consonants ("kp-" becomes "keep-"), as expected, but then the vowel, "a," is dropped ("kpah-" becomes
"keeph-").


TA THEME 1 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM, 3RD PERSON SINGULAR OR PLURAL OBJECT


1ST PERSON SINGULAR SUBJECT


Quatsch kpahak? - "Why do I shut him (or "her" or "them") in"?

eli kpahak - "as I shut him (or "her" or "them") in"  {The Changed Conjunct Mode calls for "initial change."  Thus, we would have "keephak;" but the "initial change" moves to the preverb, which is ALWAYS used in this Mode.}

kpahake - "if I shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephake - "when I shut him (or "her" or "them") in"  {Note that if a preverb is used in this Mode (which is an option), then the "initial change" is transferred to the preverb: "enda kpahake."}

keephak - "I who shut him (or "her" or "them") in"


2ND PERSON SINGULAR SUBJECT

Quatsch kpahatt? - "Why do you (sg.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"?

eli kpahatt - "as you (sg.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

kpahatte - "if you (sg.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

keephatte OR enda kpahatte - "when you (sg.) shut her (or "him" or
"them") in"

keephatt - "you (sg.) who shut her (or "him" or "them") in"


3RD PERSON SINGULAR SUBJECT

Quatsch kpahaat? - "Why does he (or "she") shut him (or "her" or "them")
in"?

eli kpahaat - "as he (or "she") shuts him (or "her" or "them") in"

kpahaate - "if he (or "she") shuts him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephaate - "when he (or "she") shuts him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephaat - "he (or "she") who shuts him (or "her" or "them") in"


1ST PERSON EXCLUSIVE PLURAL SUBJECT

Quatsch kpahenk - "Why do we (excl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"?

eli kpahenk - "as we (excl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

kpahenke - "if we (excl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

keephenke - "when we (excl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

keephenk - "we (excl.) who shut her (or "him" or "them") in"


1ST PERSON INCLUSIVE PLURAL SUBJECT

Quatsch kpahank? - "Why do we (incl.) shut him (or "her" or "them") in"?

eli kpahank - "as we (incl.) shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

kpahanque - "if we (incl.) shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephanque - "when we (incl.) shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephank - "we (incl.) who shut him (or "her" or "them") in"


2ND PERSON PLURAL SUBJECT

Quatsch kpaheek? - "Why do you (pl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"?

eli kpaheek - "as you (pl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

kpaheque - "if you (pl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

keepheque - "when you (pl.) shut her (or "him" or "them") in"

keepheek - "you (pl.) who shut her (or "him" or "them") in"


3RD PERSON PLURAL SUBJECT

Quatsch kpahachtit? - "Why do they shut him (or "her" or "them") in"?

eli kpahachtit - "as they shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

kpahachtite- "if they shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephachtite - "when they shut him (or "her" or "them") in"

keephaatschik - "they who shut him (or "her" or "them) in"  {Make careful note of how this third person plural participle is formed.  It takes the third person singular participle and changes its "-t" to "-tsch-," then adds the animate plural suffix, "-ik," from the Postion 7 endings for verbs.}


INDEFINITE PERSON SUBJECT

{Note that the Indefinite Person forms of Transitive Animate verbs become Passives, where the subject of the verb is an unstated 3rd person acting on the stated 3rd person object.}

Quatsch kpahund? - "Why is someone (or "are some people") shut in"?

eli kpahund - "as someone is (or "some people are") shut in"

kpahunde - "if someone is (or "some people are") shut in"

keephunde - "when someone is (or "some people are") shut in"

keephund - "someone (or "some people") who is (or "are") shut in" 


That's enough for this part. Next time we'll deal with the Unspecified Tense, Negative Form and the other Tenses of TA Theme 1 verbs in the Conjunct Order.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#41 Jun-06-2014 03:00:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 5


In this part, we will cover the Negative Form of the Unspecified Tense, and the Preterite, Imperfect and Future Tenses of Theme 1 Transitive Animate verbs in the five Modes of the Conjunct Order.  Since the affixes for these forms follow a fairly set formula, it will not be necessary to conjugate the verb for every Person of every Form. It will also be understood (without writing it out each time) that the object of these verbs may be ANY 3rd Person (singular or plural).  A few examples will let you see how to do it for those Persons not shown. One example from each Mode will be sufficient.

TA THEME 1 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch taku schingalawak? - "Why don't I hate him?" (Conjunct Indicative
Mode)

eli taku schingalawatt - "as you (sg.) do not hate her"
(Changed Conjunct Mode)

taku schingalaque - "if she does not hate them"  {Note that the Negative Form uses "k" ("q") instead of "t" for 3rd person forms, and moves the Negative Form "w-sound" ("u") after the "k-sound." In ALL other Persons, the "w-sound" precedes the Position 5 Verb suffixes.}
(Subjunctive Mode)

taku schingalawenke - "when we (excl.)do not hate him"  {Since this verb already begins with an initial long vowel, there is no need for "initial change."  The same forms may serve for both Subjunctive and Changed Subjunctive Modes.  Often the Changed Subjunctive can be recognized by the presence of the preverb, "enda."}
(Changed Subjunctive Mode)

taku schingalawank - "we (incl.) who do not hate her"
(Participle)


PRETERITE TENSE

Quatsch taku schingalaweekup - "Why didn't you (pl.) hate them?"
(Conjunct Indicative Mode)

eli taku schigalachtikup - "as they did not hate him"  {Note the 3rd person plural negative in "-k" (really "-kw," but written this way by the Moravians in the Preterite Tense).}
(Changed Conjunct Mode)

taku schingalakpanne - "if I did not hate her"
(Subjunctive Mode)

enda taku schingalawatpanne - "when you (sg.) did not hate them"
(Changed Subjunctive Mode)

taku schingalakup - "he who did not hate him"
(Participle)


IMPERFECT TENSE

In the Conjunct Order of TA Theme 1 verbs, the Imperfect Tense is found only in the Subjunctive Mode.  It is always used with the particle,"a" or "aam" ('would').

aam schingalakshanne - "if I would have hated her"

aam taku schingalawattshanne - "if you (sg.) would not have hated them"

a schingalaatshanne - "if she would have hated him"

aam schingalenkshanne - "if we (excl.) would have hated her"

aam schingalanq'shanne - "if we (incl.) would have hated them"

a schingaleeq'shanne - "if you (pl.) would have hated him"

aam taku schingalachtikshanne - "if they would not have hated them"

{Note that the above phrases may also be translated as "if we had hated them," etc.}


FUTURE TENSE

Quatsch taku schingalaweektsch? - "Why don't you (pl.) hate him?"
(Conjunct Indicative Mode)

elitsch schingalachtit - "as they will hate her" {The future marker, "-tsch," may be suffixed to either word, but you are more likely to see it like this.}
(Changed Conjunct Mode)

taku schingalawaketsch - "if I shall not hate them"
(Subjunctive Mode)

enda schingalattetsch - "when you (sg.) will hate them"
(Changed Subjunctive Mode)

schingalawanktsch - "we (incl.) who will hate him"
(Participle)


That will do it for this part. Next time, we will cover use of the obviative in the Conjunct Order; and, finally, the Imperative Order.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#42 Jun-06-2014 03:02:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 9:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 1, PART 6


In this part, we will cover the "obviative" forms found in the Conjunct Order of Theme 1 Transitive Animate verbs; and then we will deal with TA verbs in the Imperative Order.


TA THEME 1 OBVIATIVE FORMS

To the best of my current knowledge, the Position 3 Obviative suffix, "-li-," is not used in the Conjunct Order of TA verbs, in Northern Unami.  However, further study may reveal its presence, somewhere.

The Position 7 Obviative suffix, "-il," (sometimes with voiceless final "l" dropped) is used on TA Participles which occur in obviative contexts.  Here are a few TA Theme 1 examples:

newoatschi = "him (obv.) whom he sees" (voiceless final "l" has been dropped
inthis form)

woahatschil = "those (obv.) whom she knows"

wikimatschil = "his wedded wife" (i.e "her (obv.) with whom he dwells")

ndonawatschil = "him (obv.) whom he seeks"


TA VERB, IMPERATIVE ORDER, ORDINARY IMPERATIVE MODE

pennau - "Look {you (sg.)} at him." (or "her" or "them")

penno - "Look {you (pl.)} at her." (or "him" or "them")

pennawatam - "Let us {you (sg.) and me} look at them." (or "her" or "him")

pennawatamook - "Let us {you (pl.) and me} look at him." (or "her"
or"them")


IMPERATIVE ORDER, PROHIBITIVE MODE

katschi pennawahan - "Don't look {you (sg.)} at him." (or "her" or "them")

katschi pennawahek - "Don't look {you (pl.)} at her." (or "them" or "him")


IMPERATIVE ORDER, FUTURE IMPERATIVE MODE

pennawome - "Look {you (sg.)} at her." (or "him" or "them") [at some particular time in the future].

pennawomowe - "Look {you (pl.)} at him." (or "her" or "them") [at some particular time in the future].

{The above Future Imperative forms are sometimes translated as "You (sg.) must look at her," etc.  This mode is used to issue commands or instructions which are not to be carried out immediately, but sometime in the future.}


This concludes the Lesson on Theme 1 Transitive Animate verbs.  The next lesson will deal with Theme 2 Transitive Animate verbs.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-10-2014 04:26:am)

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#43 Jun-12-2014 05:06:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 1

In this lesson, we will cover the Theme 2 Transitive Animate verbs, which, along with Theme 4 TA verbs, are sometimes classified as "inverse" forms, because the action of the singular object verbs runs Object < Verb < Subject (that is, from "right to left," so to speak).  In these verbs the personal pronoun prefix represents the Object.    This is opposite the Theme 1 and Theme 3 TA verbs, where the personal pronoun prefix represents the Subject.  However, personal pronoun plural endings are still suffixed to the Theme 2 verbs.

In the last lesson, we saw that the TA Theme 1 "Theme Sign" was the letter, "a," after the verb stem.  The TA Theme 2 "Theme Sign" is the letter "k" (sometimes written as "c," "g" or "q"), after the verb stem.  For instance, the verb stem "peschu-" ('bring somebody') + "a" ("peschuwa-") forms a TA Theme 1 verb.  The same stem + "k" ("peschuk-") forms a TA Theme 2 verb.

Two distinguishing traits of the TA Theme 2 verbs are: 1 - The "Subject" of these verbs is ALWAYS "third person" (singular or plural); and, 2 - This "third person Subject" can be Animate, Inanimate or Indefinite (Animate or Inanimate)--depending on the set of suffixes employed.

In this part, we will exhibit the "Animate Subject" forms in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order.  Animate Subject TA Theme 2 verbs are ALWAYS in the "Objective State."


TA THEME 2 VERB, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, OBJECTIVE STATE,
UNSPECIFIED TENSE, PRESENT FORM


3rd Person Singular Subject:

mbeschuk   "he brings me"

kpeschuk   "he brings you (sg.)"

peschukgol   "he (obv.) brings him"

mbeschukguna   "he brings us (excl.)"

kpeschukguna   "he brings us (incl.)"

kpeschukguwa   "he brings you (pl.)"

peschukguwawall   "he (obv.) brings them"

3rd Person Plural Subject:

mbeschukguk   "they bring me"

kpeschukguk   "they bring you (sg.)"

peshukgol   "they (obv.) bring him"

mbeschukgunanak   "they bring us (excl.)"

kpeschukgunanak   "they bring us (incl.)"

kpeschukguwawak   "they bring you (pl.)"

peschukguwawall   "they (obv.) bring them"

(Note:  The forms above, and below, with 3rd person Object, are used in phrases where an Obviative noun (secondary noun) is the Subject of the action.  Otherwise, the TA Theme 1 forms with 3rd person Object are used.  For example: "lenno peschuawall ochwall" ('the man brings his father') uses the TA Theme 1 form; while "lenno peschukgol ochwall" ('his father brings the man') uses the TA Theme 2 form.)


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

3rd person singular Subject:

atta mbeschukguwi   "she doesn't bring me"

atta kpeschukguwi   "she doesn't bring you (sg.)"

atta peschukguwiwall   "she (obv.) doesn't bring her"

atta mbeschukguwiwunna   "she doesn't bring us (excl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwunna   "she doesn't bring us (incl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwa   "she doesn't bring you (pl.)"

atta peschukguwiwawall   "she (obv.) doesn't bring them"

3rd person plural Subject:

atta mbeschukguwiwak   "they don't bring me"

atta kpeschukguwiwak   "they don't bring you (sg.)"

atta peschukguwiwall   "they (obv.) don't bring her"

atta mbeschukguwiwunnanak   "they don't bring us (excl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwunnanak   "they don't bring us (incl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwawak   "they don't bring you (pl.)"

atta peschukguwiwawall   "they (obv.) don't bring them"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

3rd person singular Subject:

mbeschukgoop   "he brought me"

kpeschukgoop   "he brought you (sg.)"

peschukgopannil   "he (obv.) brought her"

mbeschukgunakup   "he brought us (excl.)"

kpeschukgunakup   "he brought us (incl.)"

kpeschukguwoakup   "he brought you (pl.)"

peschukguwapannil   "he (obv.) brought them"

3rd person plural Subject:

mbeschukgopannik   "they brought me"

kpeschukgopannik   "they brought you (sg.)"

peschukgopannil   "they (obv.) brought her"

mbeschukgunapannik   "they brought us (excl.)"

kpeschukgunapannik   "they brought us (incl.)"

kpeschukguwapannik   "they brought you (pl.)"

peschukguwapannil   "they (obv.) brought them"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

3rd person singular Subject:

atta mbeschukguwip   "she didn't bring me"

atta kpeschukguwip   "she didn't bring you (sg.)"

atta peschukguwipannil   "she (obv.) didn't bring him"

atta mbeschukguwiwunnakup   "she didn't bring us (excl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwunnakup   "she didn't bring us (incl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwoakup   "she didn't bring you (pl.)"

atta peschukguwiwapannil   "she (obv.) didn't bring them"

3rd person plural Subject:

atta mbeschukguwipannik   "they didn't bring me"

atta kpeschukguwipannik   "they didn't bring you (sg.)"

atta peschukguwipannil   "they (obv.) didn't bring her"

atta mbeschukguwiwunnapannik   "they didn't bring us (excl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwunnapannik   "they didn't bring us (incl.)"

atta kpeschukguwiwoapannik   "they didn't bring you (pl.)"

atta peschukguwiwapannil   "they (obv.) didn't bring them"

To date, no TA verbs, in the Independent Order, have been found in the IMPERFECT TENSE; though they would be easy enough to form, simply by substituting "-sa" for "-p" and "-shann-" for "-pann-" of the PRETERITE TENSE.

The FUTURE TENSE is formed simply by suffixing the future marker, "-tsch," to the UNSPECIFIED TENSE forms.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#44 Jun-12-2014 05:15:am

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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 2

This time, we will illustrate the forms for Transitive Animate Theme 2 verbs, with INANIMATE subjects, in the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order; and, we will also cover the Subordinative Mode for both Animate and Inanimate Subject verbs.  All these forms are found ONLY in the "Objective State."


TA THEME 2 VERBS, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, INANIMATE SUBJECT, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, OBJECTIVE STATE, POSITIVE FORM

Singular Subject:

ndangamgun   "it pierces me"

ktangamgun   "it pierces you (sg.)"

wtangamgun   "it pierces him"

ndangamguneen   "it pierces us (excl.)"

ktangamguneen   "it pierces us (incl.)"

ktangamgunewo   "it pierces you (pl.)"

wtangamgunewo   "it pierces them"

Plural Subject:

ndangamgunall   "they (inan.) pierce me"

ktangamgunall   "they (inan.) pierce you (sg.)"

wtangamgunall   "they (inan.) pierce her"

ndangamguneenanil   "they (inan.) pierce us (excl.)"

ktangamguneenanil   "they (inan.) pierce us (incl.)"

ktangamgunewoawil   "they (inan.) pierce you (pl.)"

wtangamgunewoawil   "they (inan.) pierce them"


NEGATIVE FORM

These forms are made simply by inserting "-wu-" between the "-gu-" and "-n-" of each Positive Form.

Example:  atta ndangamguwun   "it does not pierce me"

Example:  atta wtangamguwunewoawil   "they (inan.) do not pierce them"


PRETERITE TENSE

These are made by adding "-ep" to the singular subject forms ending in "n," and by adding "-ap" to the singular subject forms ending in "-o."  The plural subject forms drop the final "-ll" or "-l" and replace it with "-pannil."

Example:  wtangamgunep   "it pierced him"

Example:  ktangamguneenanipannil   "they (inan.) pierced us (in.)"


FUTURE TENSE

As usual, this is formed by simply adding "-tsch" to the Unspecified Tense forms.


TA THEME 2 VERBS, INDEPENDENT ORDER, SUBORDINATIVE MODE

The Subordinative Mode forms for BOTH Animate Subject and Inanimate Subject; and, BOTH Singular and Plural Subject, are EXACTLY the same as the Inanimate SINGULAR subject forms shown above.

Example:  ktangamgun   "he [or "she" or "it" or "they (anim.)" or "they (inan.)"] pierces (or "pierce") you (sg.)"

Example:  wtangamgunewoatsch   "she [or "he" or "it" or "they (anim.)" or "they (inan.)"] will pierce them"

How do you tell what these forms mean?  It's easier than it looks.  If you're saying, "the thorn pierces me," you know that "ndangamgun" is Inanimate Subject, Indicative Mode, because the subject ("thorn") is inanimate.  If you're saying, "thus will the wasps sting (pierce) me," you know that "ndangamgun" (the very same word) is Animate Subject, Subordinative Mode, because the subject ("wasps") is animate.

At this point, I would suggest that you review LESSON 7, Part 3, regarding the Subordinative Mode.  Every general statement there applies to every TYPE and SUB-TYPE of verb.

Next time we'll deal with the Theme 2 TA verbs with Indefinite Subject.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#45 Jun-12-2014 05:20:am

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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 3

In this part, we will cover the Theme 2 Transitive Animate verbs with Indefinite Subject.  We'll deal with the Indicative Mode of the Independent Order--Objective State, only.  In the Objective State, these verbs have first person and second person objects, ONLY. The subject can be Animate or Inanimate ("someone" or "some people," "something" or "some things").  These verbs, IN THE OBJECTIVE STATE, may be translated into English in the "PASSIVE" voice, because "someone (indefinite) calls you" means basically the same thing as "you are called (by someone)."  The "(by someone)" part can be left out of the translation, since it is understood that you MUST be "called" by "someone" or "something."  In the Objective State, these verbs take the Theme Sign, "-k-" or "-g-," + "-e."  We will use the verb, "wuntschiman" ('to call somebody'), in illustrating the paradigms (conjugations).

[Note:  3rd person passives are expressed by the indefinite person forms of the Theme 1 verbs.  Example:  “wentschiminde" (‘when he is called’ or ‘when they are called’).]

TA THEME 2 VERBS, INDEPENDENT ORDER, INDICATIVE MODE, INDEFINITE SUBJECT, OBJECTIVE STATE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSTIVE FORM

nuntschimge   "I am called"

guntschimge   "you (sg.) are called"

nuntschimgehenna   "we (excl.) are called"

guntschimgehenna   "we (incl.) are called"

guntschimgehimmo   "you (pl.) are called"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nuntschimgewi   "I am not called"

atta guntschimgewi   "you (sg.) are not called"

atta nuntschimgewihenna   "we (excl.) are not called"

atta guntschimgewihenna   "we (incl.) are not called"

atta guntschimgewihimmo   "you (pl.) are not called"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

nuntschimgehump   "I was called"

guntschimgehump   "you (sg.) were called"

nuntschimgehennap   "we (excl.) were called"

guntschimgehennap   "we (incl.) were called"

guntschimgehimmoap   "you (pl.) were called"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nuntschimgewihump   "I wasn't called"

atta guntschimgewihump   "you (sg.) weren't called"

atta nuntschimgewihennap   "we (excl.) weren't called"

atta guntschimgewihennap   "we (incl.) weren't called"

atta guntschimgewihimmoap   "you (pl.) weren't called"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

nuntschimgetsch   "I shall be called"

guntschimgetsch   "you (sg.) will be called"

nuntschimgehennatsch   "we (excl.) shall be called"

guntschimgehennatsch   "we (incl.) shall be called"

guntschimgehimmoatsch   "you (pl.) will be called"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nuntschimgewitsch   "I shall not be called"

atta guntschimgewitsch   "you (sg.) won't be called"

atta nuntschimgewihennatsch   "we (excl.) shall not be called"

atta guntschimgewihennatsch   "we (incl.) shall not be called"

atta guntschimgewihimmoatsch   "you (pl.) won't be called"

Next time we will deal with the Theme 2 TA verbs with Indefinite Subject in the Subordinative Mode, before covering those in the Absolute State.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#46 Jun-12-2014 05:23:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 4

In this part, we will cover the Subordinative Mode of the Transitive Animate Theme 2 verbs with Indefinite Subject.

The Subordinative Mode will look familiar, because the suffixes are exactly the same as those used for Animate Intransitive verbs (Lesson 7, Part 3).  For this Mode, we're going to conjugate a TA+O verb, "milan" ('to give something to somebody').  The TA+O Sub-type is conjugated exactly the same as any TA verb.

Remember that in Theme 2 TA verbs, in the Subordinative Mode, it is the SUBJECT which can be singular or plural; and, while we render the Indefinite Subject forms in the Passive Voice, in English, the true Subjects are the indefinite, animate or inanimate, singular or plural,third person or persons.


TA THEME 2 VERBS, INDEPENDENT ORDER, SUBORDINATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, OBJECTIVE STATE, INDEFINITE SUBJECT, POSITIVE FORM

nmilgeen   "I am given something" or "some things"

kmilgeen   "you (sg.) are given something" or "some things"

nmilgeneen   "we (excl.) are given something" or "some things"

kmilgeneen   "we (incl.) are given something" or 'some things"

kmilgenewo   "you (pl.) are given something" or "some things"


UNSPECIFIED TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nmilgewun   "I am not given something" or "some things"

atta kmilgewun   "you (sg.) are not given something" or "some things"

atta nmilgewuneen   "we (excl.) are not given something" or "some things"

atta kmilgewuneen   "we (incl.) are not given something" or "some things"

atta kmilgewunewo   "you (pl.) are not given something" or "some things"


PRETERITE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

nmilgenep   "I was given it" or "them"

kmilgenep   "you (sg.) were given it" or "them"

nmilgeneenap   "we (excl.) were given it" or "them"

kmilgeneenap   "we (incl.) were given it" or "them"

kmilgenewoap   "you (pl.) were given it" or "them"


PRETERITE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nmilgewunep   "I was not given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewunep   "you (sg.) were not given it" or "them"

atta nmilgewuneenap   "we (excl.) were not given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewuneenap   "we (incl.) were not given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewunewoap   "you (pl.) were not given it" or "them"


FUTURE TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

nmilgeentsch   "I shall be given it" or "them"

kmilgeentsch   "you (sg.) will be given it" or "them"

nmilgeneentsch   "we (excl.) shall be given it" or "them"

kmilgeneentsch   "we (incl.) shall be given it" or "them"

kmilgenewoatsch   "you (pl.) will be given it" or "them"


FUTURE TENSE, NEGATIVE FORM

atta nmilgewuntsch   "I shall not be given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewuntsch   "you (sg.) won't be given it" or "them"

atta nmilgewuneentsch   "we (excl.) shall not be given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewuneentsch   "we (incl.) shall not be given it" or "them"

atta kmilgewunewoatsch   "you (pl.) won't be given it" or "them"
{Note that (as with any other negative verb) the future marker, "-tsch," may be suffixed to the negative particle, instead of to the verb, at the discretion of the speaker.

Example:  attatsch kmilgewun   "you (sg.) won't be given it" or "them"

Next time, we will deal with the TA Theme 2 verbs with Indefinite Subject, in the "ABSOLUTE" State.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#47 Jun-12-2014 05:27:am

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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

[This part removed.]

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#48 Jun-12-2014 05:42:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 5

Now, we will begin to cover Transitive Animate Theme 2 verbs, in the Conjunct Order.

You will recall that the five Modes of the Conjunct Order (Conjunct Indicative; Changed Conjunct; Subjunctive; Changed Subjunctive; Participle) are very often used to express subordinate clauses which begin (in English translation) with the words, "why," "as," "if,"
"when," and "who."

In the conjugations which follow, the third person subject of the verbal action can be either Animate or Inanimate, singular or plural, depending on the context in which it is used.  The verb stem which serves as our example is "achpita-" ('abide in somebody').  Words beginning with "ach-," like this, drop the "-ch-" when "initial change" takes place.

{Please note that the forms with first person singular objects DO NOT use the usual theme sign, "k," but use, instead, an "i."  In addition, for first person singular objects, the Animate 3rd person subjects are distinguished by the suffix, "-t," and the Inanimate  3rd person Subjects are given the suffix "-k."  These are the only exceptions to the normal procedure, among TA Theme 2 verbs.}


TA THEME 2 VERBS, CONJUNCT ORDER, CONJUNCT INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM, 3RD PERSON SINGULAR OR PLURAL SUBJECT

Quatsch achpitit?   "Why does he abide in me?"

Quatsch achpitik?   "Why does it abide in me?"

Quatsch achpitaquon?   "Why does it abide in you (sg.)?"

Quatsch achpitaguk?   "Why does it abide in him?"

Quatsch achpitaquenk?   "Why does it abide in us (excl.)?"

Quatsch achpitaquonk?   "Why does it abide in us (incl.)?"

Quatsch achpitaqueek?   "Why does it abide in you (pl.)?"

Quatsch achpitaquechtit?   "Why does it abide in them?"


NEGATIVE FORM

Quatsch taku achpitawit?   "Why doesn't he abide in me?"

Quatsch taku achpitawik?   "Why doesn't it abide in me?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguwon?    "Why doesn't it abide in you (sg.)?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguq'?   "Why doesn't it abide in her?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguwenk?   "Why doesn't it abide in us (excl.)?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguwonk?   "Why doesn't it abide in us (incl.)?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguweek?   "Why doesn't it abide in you (pl.)?"

Quatsch taku achpitaguchtik?   "Why doesn't it abide in them?"


PRETERITE TENSE

To form the Preterite Tense, merely add "-up" to any of the above forms.

Example:  Quatsch achpitaquonnup?   "Why did it abide in you (sg.)?


IMPERFECT ASPECT (reconstructed)

To form the Imperfect Aspect, merely add "-sa" to any of the above forms.

Example:  Quatsch achpitaquonksa?   "Why has it abided in us (in.)?"


FUTURE ASPECT

To form the Future Aspect, merely add "-tsch" to any of the above forms.

Example:  Quatsch taku achpitaguchtiktsch?   "Why won't it abide in them?"


CHANGED CONJUNCT MODE

The Changed Conjunct Mode uses the same forms as the Conjunct Indicative Mode, except that the forms are preceded by the preverb, "eli" ('as'), which preverb takes the "initial change" of the first short vowel.

Example:  eli achipitik   "as it abides in me"


That's it for this part.  Next time we'll cover the remaining three modes of the Conjunct Order.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#49 Jun-12-2014 05:46:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 6

In this part of the lesson, we will cover the Subjunctive Mode, the Changed Subjunctive Mode and the Participle of Transitive Animate Theme 2 verbs.  In these conjugations, the 3rd person subject of the verb may be Animate or Inanimate (with the exception of those with 1st person singular objects, which have separate forms for Animate and Inanimate subjects), Singular or Plural, depending on the context.  We will use the verb-stem, "naal-" ('fetch') for these paradigms.


TA THEME 2 VERB, CONJUNCT ORDER, SUBJUNCTIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

naalike   "if it fetches me"

naalite   "if he fetches me"

naalquonne   "if she fetches you (sg.)"

naalguke   "if they fetch him"

naalquenke   "if it fetches us (excl.)"

naalquonke   "if he fetches us (incl.)"

naalqueque   "if she fetches you (pl.)"

naalguchtite   "if they fetch them"


NEGATIVE FORM

{Please note that some of these negative forms are rarely, if ever, encountered in the Moravian works.  This is because negative phrases are ALWAYS preceded by a "negative particle." Therefore, it is easier to simply use the Positive Form with a preceding negative particle; and, this is the usual way such phrases are written--BUT, not always!}

taku naalowike   "if it doesn't fetch me"

taku naalowite   "if he doesn't fetch me"

taku naalguwonne   "if they don't fetch you (sg.)"

taku naalguque   "if she doesn't fetch him"

taku naalguwenke   "if he doesn't fetch us (excl.)"

taku naalguwonke   "if they don't fetch us (incl.)"

taku naalguweque   "if it doesn't fetch you (pl.)"

taku naalguchtique   "if she doesn't fetch them"

PRETERITE, IMPERFECT AND FUTURE TENSES

The first two tenses are formed by suffixing "-panne" or "-shanne" to the Conjunct Indicative Mode forms of the Unspecified Tense; and the Future is formed by suffixing "-tsch" to the above forms of the Subjunctive Mode.

Example:  naalgukpanne   "if she fetched him"

Example:  taku naalguchtikshanne   "if it hasn't fetched them"

Example:  naalquequetsch   "if they will fetch you (pl.)"


CHANGED SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

This Mode is formed exactly the same way as the Subjunctive Mode, except that forms using no preverb must show "initial change."  In our example verb, the initial change doesn't show, because it already has an initial long vowel ("-aa-").  Therefore, this particular verb usually uses a preverb, in this Mode, to distinguish it from the Subjunctive Mode.

Example:  enda naalquonne   "when he fetches you (sg.)"

Example:  enda naalquonke   "when she fetches us (incl.)"


PARTICIPLE

The TA Theme 2 Participles are exactly the same as the forms in the Changed Conjunct Mode, EXCEPT for those with 3rd person OBJECTS, which add a Position 7 Obviative suffix.  They are distinguished from the Changed Conjunct Mode in that they are not preceded by a preverb.  Positive Form examples:

naalik   "that which fetches me"

naalit   "he who fetches me"

naalquon   "she who fetches you (sg.)"

naalgukil   "they (obv.) who fetch him"

naalquenk   "he who fetches us (excl.)"

naalquonk   "that which fetches us (incl.)"

naalqueek   "they who fetch you (pl.)"

naalgukil   "she (obv.) who fetches them"

{Note that the forms for 3rd person singular or plural object are exactly the same.}

We WILL finish Lesson 10, next time, when we cover the TA Theme 2 verbs in the Conjunct Order, with Indefinite Subjects.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#50 Jun-12-2014 05:51:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 10:  TRANSITIVE ANIMATE VERBS, THEME 2, PART 7

In this final part of Lesson 10, we will show the forms of the Transitive Animate Theme 2 verbs with Indefinite Subject, in the Conjunct Order.  As seen, in Part 3, these forms are translated into English in the "passive voice."  In the Conjunct Order, these Indefinite Subject forms appear ONLY in the Objective State; and, as such, there are NO forms with 3rd person objects.  For our paradigm, we will use the verb stem, "naaten-" ('take').


TA THEME 2 VERB, INDEFINITE SUBJECT, CONJUNCT ORDER, CONJUNCT INDICATIVE MODE, UNSPECIFIED TENSE, POSITIVE FORM

Quatsch naatenink?   "Why am I taken?"

Quatsch naatenukgejann?   "Why are you (sg.) taken?"

Quatsch naatenukgejenk?   "Why are we (excl.) taken?"

Quatsch naatenukgejanq'?   "Why are we (incl.) taken?"

Quatsch naatenukgejeek?   "Why are you (pl.) taken?"


NEGATIVE FORM

{Note that these forms are VERY rarely used.  The Negative is most often expressed by using a negative particle with the Positive Forms, above.}

Quatsch taku naateniwonk?   "Why am I not taken?"

Quatsch taku naatenukgewann?   "Why aren't you (sg.) taken?"

Quatsch taku naatenukgewenk?   "Why aren't we (excl.) taken?"

Quatsch taku naatenukgewanq'?   "Why aren't we (incl.) taken?"

Quatsch taku naatenukgeweek?   "Why aren't you (pl.) taken?"


PRETERITE TENSE

Simply add "-up" to any of the Unspecified Tense forms.

Example:  Quatsch naateninkup?   "Why was I taken?"


IMPERFECT TENSE (reconstructed)

Simply add "-sa" to any of the Unspecified Tense forms.

Example:  Quatsch naatenukgejannsa?   "Why have you (sg.) been taken?"


FUTURE TENSE

Simply add "-tsch" to any of the Unspecified Tense forms.

Example:  Quatsch naatenukgewenktsch?   "Why will we (excl.) be taken?"


CHANGED CONJUNCT MODE

This Mode uses the Unspecifed Tense forms of the Conjunct Indicative Mode, preceded by a preverb, such as "eli."  (There is no initial change in the word, "naaten-," since it begins with
a long vowel.}

Example:  eli naatenukgejanq'   "as we (incl.) are taken"


SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

The Unspecified, Preterite, Imperfect and Future Tenses of this Mode are formed by adding the suffixes, "-e," "-panne," "-shanne" and "-tsch," respectively, to the Unspecifed Tense forms of the Conjunct Indicative Mode, above.

Example:  naatenukgejenke   "if we (excl.) are taken"

Example:  naatenukgejanq'panne   "if we (incl.) were taken"

Example:  taku naatenukgeweekshanne   "if you (pl.) have not been taken"

Example:  taku naateniwonketsch   "if I won't be taken"


CHANGED SUBJUNCTIVE MODE

This Mode uses the same forms as the Subjunctive Mode, preceded by an appropriate preverb, such as "enda."

Example:  enda taku naatenukgewanne   "when you (sg.) are not taken"

Example:  enda naatenukgejeequetsch   "when you (pl.) will be taken"

{Note how the voiceless "w" shows up when suffixing the "-jeek" ending.  In truth, it is always "spoken," but rarely written.}


PARTICIPLE

The Participles are exactly the same as the Changed Conjunct Mode forms.  They are not preceded by preverbs, however.

Example:  naatenink   "I who am taken"

Example:  taku naatenukgewanq'up   "we (incl.) who were not taken"

This concludes Lesson 10.  Next, we will cover the Transitive Animate Theme 3 verbs. 

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (Jun-13-2014 05:51:am)

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