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#1 May-07-2014 01:11:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I first attempted to share what I had learned of the Lenape language with members of the old lenapelist yahoo group, back in late 2001.  I have decided to post this newly revised edition, here, for those who wish to learn it.  Of the three comprehensively documented dialects of Delaware (Munsee, Northern Unami and Southern Unami), Northern Unami exhibits the most complex grammar of the three, having been written down many years ago.  (Languages tend to simplify over time--a process which moves faster after having been in close contact with other foreign languages, for many years.)  If you can learn the Northern Unami grammar, you will have no trouble, at all, mastering the grammatical structures of modern Munsee and/or modern Southern Unami.  I have no idea how many, or if any, people actually want to learn any of this, nevertheless, here it is for those who do.  I will begin with the first two lessons, then proceed with more in the coming weeks.  If there are any questions, I would hope that they be asked here, instead of by e-mail or private message, so others can benefit from the answers.  (Provided, of course, that I have the answers!).



DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


Lesson 1:  Spelling and Pronunciation


In this lesson, we will cover the orthography (spelling system) and pronunciation of Northern Unami.

SPELLING

The Northern Unami dialect of Lenape was recorded for posterity in the writings of the Moravian missionaries to the Delaware Indians. Over a period of about one-hundred years (c.1750-c.1850), seven missionaries of the United Brethren (Moravians) compiled substantial works in this dialect.  In chronological order of their manuscripts, these missionaries were Bernhard Adam Grube, John Ettwein, Johannes Roth, David Zeisberger, John Heckewelder, Christian Frederick Denke, and Abraham Luckenbach.  All of these men were of German ancestry, and it was the German alphabet which was employed in spelling the Lenape words.  However, there were no set rules for spelling Lenape, in the beginning, and each man used the letters to represent Lenape sounds, as he saw fit.

By the time of Denke and Luckenbach, spelling had become much more uniform.  But, when we read the Moravian works, we must adjust to the variations in spelling that we come across. This is not really very difficult.  All this means is that in one place we may read, "achpoques" ('mouse'); and in another place, "achpokwes" ('mouse'). We may see "mizit" ('she eats') or "mitsit" ('she eats'). The fact is that the Moravians had more letters than they needed to represent the Lenape sounds, and they employed all the possibilities available to them.

In addition to this, some changes in spelling were the result of simple language change, which occurred during the century the Moravians were actively engaged with the Lenape. For example, the word ending, "-iwi," found in early spellings, becomes "-ii" in the final works. The word ending pronounced, /-kw/ changed from /-k(uch)/ in early works to /q'/ in the later works of Denke.

PRONUNCIATION

All consonants are pronounced as in English, except "j," which = English "y," as in the word, 'you,' and "z," which = English "ts," as in 'fits.'

Voiceless consonants ("p," "t," "k," "s") are voiced (sound like English "b," "d," "g," "z") when immediately preceded by a nasal consonant ("m" or "n"). THIS RULE APPLIES NO MATTER HOW THE WORD IS ACTUALLY WRITTEN. "N'delli" ('that I') and "n'telli" ('that I') are BOTH pronounced as "n'delli." Likewise, voiced consonants are pronounced as unvoiced consonants when NOT preceded by a nasal consonant. Thus, "geebtschaat" ('fool') is pronounced as "keeptschaat."

The short vowels are "a," like the "u" in the English word, 'but' -"e" as in 'met' - "i" as in 'hit' - "o" as in 'torn' - "u" as in 'full.'  A very short, mute vowel (sheva or schwa) is sometimes marked by an apostrophe between two consonants ("n'mischenawuna" - 'we-receive-him').  Other times, it is simply understood ("nmischenawuna"), or marked by a different vowel ("nemischenawuna").

The long vowels are "a" as in 'father' - "e" as in 'cliche' - "i" as in 'machine' - "o" as in 'go' - "u" as in 'rule.' Vowels followed by a single consonant and a vowel are generally long vowels.  Otherwise, the long vowels are written as double letters ("aa" - "ee" - "ie" - "oo").  Long "u" and short "u" are both written with just "u."

There are a few special letter combinations: "ch" = "ch" in the German word, 'Bach,' or the Scottish word, 'loch.' It sounds like a mild clearing of the throat. Before "s" and "t," the "ch" is usually pronounced as an "h."  "uch" is pronounced as a voiceless "w," which sounds almost like an English "f," sometimes. (If you have Nora Thompson Dean's language lesson tapes, listen to her pronunciation of "awsu." This is written as "auchsu" in Northern Unami, but sounds just as she pronounces it.) "sch" = English "sh" in 'hush.'  "tsch" = English "ch" in 'church.' "oa" = English "aw" in 'law,' when following "h" or "w." Elsewhere, it represents long "o" + long "a." "ei" and "ey" = English "i" in 'like.'  When occurring at the end of a word, "au" and "eu" = "a" + voiceless "w," and "e" + voiceless "w," respectively. This voiceless "w" sounds like a whispered, silent "w," NOT like "f."

Some Lenape words did prove difficult for the Moravians to represent, phonetically. Their biggest problem was with the Lenape voiceless "w."  Here's where this sound occurs in their writings:

"gus," "kus" and "gun" most often sound like "kwes," "kwes" and "kwen" (unless preceded by a nasal, of course; or, in rare cases, where there is no voiceless "w" in the word).

"x" or "ks" often represent Lenape "kws," as in the word, "mallachxitall" ('beans'), which should be pronounced as "mallachkwsitall." However, this is not always the case. "Maxen" ('shoe') is pronounced as simply "maksen." These differences can only be learned through experience.

Similarly, a "-k" at the end of many words should really be pronounced as "kw." The word, "machk" ('bear'), for instance, sounds like "machkw." Again, these must be learned.

The letter, "l," is pronounced as in English 'lift." However, it becomes a voiceless "l" when it occurs at the end of a word, or in the middle of a word, after any consonant except "h" or "ch." The voiceless "l" is pronounced only with the breath--not with the vocal chords.

I would recommend, for those who can do it, that you carefully compare Lenape words written by the Moravians with those in the audio tapes of Nora Thompson Dean and/or the Language CD put out by the Delaware Tribe of Indians, or the online Lenape Talking Dictionary.  You can sort out many of the subtleties of pronunciation by this method.

In the next lessons, we will cover the Lenape parts-of-speech.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (May-07-2014 01:46:pm)

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#2 May-07-2014 01:14:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 2 - NOUNS, PART 1

GENDER

Each Lenape noun is either "animate" or "inanimate" in gender.  Animate nouns generally designate what a scientific classification system would call "living things" ("lennapewak" ['human beings'] - "awessisak" ['beasts'] - "mehittkwak" ['trees'] - etc.). Inanimate nouns generally designate what a scientific classification system would call "lifeless things" ("achsinnall" ['stones'] - "wachtschuwall" ['mountains'] -"mbi" ['water'], etc.). There are, however, exceptions. For example, "emhoansak" ['spoons'] and "hoosak" ['kettles'] are grammatically "animate;" while "askikwall" ['grasses'] and "chasquim" ['corn'] are grammatically "inanimate."  There are not many exceptions, and they will
be learned with ease, through experience.

MODIFICATIONS

The singular forms of Lenape nouns can be "modified" by the addition of suffixes and prefixes, to express "diminution," "possession," "plurality," "obviation," "absence," and "location." This part of
the lesson will cover the first two "modifications."

DIMINUTION

The suffix, "-tit," is the "diminutive ending" for BOTH "animate" and "inanimate" nouns. By it, "lenno" ('a man') becomes "lennotit" ('a little man'); and "wachtschu" ('a mountain') becomes "wachtschutit" ('a hill').

The diminutive suffix, "-tit," is added directly to the singular forms of nouns which end in vowels (as shown by the examples just given above). By rule, it should also be added directly to the singular forms of nouns ending in "m" or "n," also (for example, "woaks'chumtit" - 'a fox kit'); however, at least one exception has been recorded ("ochquechumittit" - 'a little female beast'), where a euphonic
connective, "-i-," is inserted.

When the singular form of a noun ends with an "-s," the "-s" is dropped before adding the diminutive suffix ("tipas" / "tipatit" - 'chicken' / 'chick' and "tscholens" / "tscholentit" - 'bird' / 'little bird').

The singular forms of nouns ending in a consonant + "-k" add the diminutive suffix directly to the noun ("punk" - 'ashes' becomes "punktit" - 'a mote'). BUT, when a noun ends in a vowel + "-k," the
"-k" is dropped before adding the diminutive suffix ("pachsajeek" - 'a valley' becomes "pachsajetit" - 'a gully').

Nouns which end in other consonants add the euphonic connective short vowel, "-i-," before the diminutive suffix (for example, "halpangel" - 'a keg' becomes "halpangelittit" - 'a little keg').

The other "modifying suffixes" ("possessive," "plural," "obviative," "absentative," and "locative") may be added to the diminutive suffix to further modify the meaning of a noun.

POSSESSION

Any Lenape noun (except personal names) can be "possessed" by affixing the "bound personal pronouns" to it. These bound personal pronouns are a set of prefixes and suffixes which are added to the noun to indicate "possession."  They are as follows (using the noun, "damaskhikan" - 'a scythe,' as the example):

1st person singular = "n-" ("ndamaskhikan" - 'my scythe')

2nd person singular = "k-" ("kdamaskhikan" - ('your [sg.] scythe')

3rd person singular = "w-" ("wdamaskhikan" - ('her [or 'his'] scythe')

1st person plural exclusive = "n---enna" ("ndamaskhikanenna" - 'our [excl.] scythe') ["Exclusive" means the person spoken to is excluded from the ownership.]

1st person plural inclusive = "k---enna" ("kdamaskhikanenna" - 'our [incl.] scythe') ["Inclusive" means the person spoken to is included in the ownership.]

2nd person plural = "k---uwa" ("kdamaskhikanuwa" - 'your [pl.] scythe')

3rd person plural = "w---uwa" ("wdamaskhikanuwa" - 'their scythe')

These bound personal pronouns go through many transformations, depending on which letters they precede or follow. These numerous phonetic changes will be covered in our lesson on pronouns.

A special "possessive marker," "-umm", may be inserted at the end of a possessed noun, but before the plural suffix.  For instance, "knitschan" or "knitschanum" = 'your (sg.) child,' and "knitschanuwa" or "knitschanummuwa" = 'your (pl.) child.'  The "possessive marker" is never seen on nouns ending in "-kan" or "-gan."

The modifying suffixes denoting "plurality," "obviation," "absence," and "location," can be added to the "possessive suffixes" to further modify the noun's meaning.

In the next part of this lesson, we will cover "plurality."

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#3 May-07-2014 01:16:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 2, NOUNS, PART 2

MODIFICATIONS

Unlike "diminution" and "possession," the four remaining "modifications" of the noun are mutually exclusive. That is, only one of them can exist, at the same time, in any given noun.  A noun with a "plural suffix" CANNOT, in addition, have an "obviative," "absentative" or "locative suffix."  Nor can a noun with an "obviative suffix" have, in addition, a "plural,""absentative" or "locative suffix," at the same time--and so on.  Any one of these last four "modifying" suffixes can be added to a "diminutive" or "possessive suffix."

PLURALITY

The singular form of a Lenape noun becomes "plural" by adding one of the "plural suffixes to the noun. "-ak" is the "plural suffix" for"animate" nouns.  "-all" is the "plural suffix" for "inanimate" nouns.
Thus, "namees" ('a fish') becomes "namesak" ('fishes'); and "alluns" ('an arrow') becomes "allunsall" ('arrows').

Both the "animate plural suffix," "-ak," and the "inanimate plural suffix," "-all," are added directly to
the singular form of those nouns which end in a consonant. Thus, "amemens" ('a child') becomes "amemensak" ('children'); "bambil" ('book') becomes "bambilak" ('books'); "goschgosch" ('a hog') becomes "goschgoschak" ('hogs'); "gischuch" ('a month') becomes "gischuchak" ('months'); "temagan" ('path') becomes "temaganall" ('paths'); "malachksit" ('a bean') becomes "malachksitall"
('beans').

EXCEPTIONS

There is a quasi-exception to this rule.  Nouns which historically, or in actual practice, end in "-kw" are often written without the final "w," because it was "understood."  But, when a suffix is added to the singular form of these nouns the "w" must be restored. Thus, "machk" ('a bear') becomes "machkwak" ('bears'); and "machtschipak" ('a shoe') becomes "machtschipachkwall" ('shoes').  MOST Northern Unami nouns that end in "-k" follow this pattern; HOWEVER, there ARE nouns which end simply in "-k," without the voiceless "w."  These follow the general rule for consonant-ending nouns, when suffixing. Thus, "mink" ('a grain') becomes "minkall" ('grains').

In some cases, in the written form of the language--particularly with nouns ending in "-kus," "-nes," "-nis," etc.--the vowel is dropped before adding any suffixes. Therefore, "anikus" ('a mouse') becomes "aniksak" ('mice'); "emhoanis" ('spoon') becomes "emhoansak" ('spoons'). Remember, however, that that "-ks- " in "aniksak" = "-kws-," when pronounced.

Another contraction of the noun is seen in "milach" ('a hair'), which becomes "milchall" ('hairs').

VOWEL ENDINGS

The singular form of those nouns which historically, or in actual practice, end in vowel + voiceless "w," re-insert a "-w-" between the vowel ending and the "plural suffix":  "ktauwema" ('your sister') becomes "ktauwemawak" ('your sisters'); "lennape" ('human being') becomes "lennapewak" ('human beings'); "amimi" ('a pigeon') becomes "amimiwak" ('pigeons'); "lenno" ('a man') becomes "lennowak" ('men'); tankhanne ('a small stream') becomes "tankhannewall" ('small streams'); "wschummo" ('a horn') becomes "wschummowall" ('horns'); "wachtschu" ('mountain') becomes "wachtschuwall" ('mountains').

Those nouns which end only in "-I" add the "plural suffix" directly to the vowel: "machtschikbi" ('a pawpaw tree') becomes "machtschikbiak" ('pawpaw trees'); "mbi" ('water') becomes "mbiall" ('waters').  Distinguishing between these two "-i" endings can only be learned through experience.

Remember that the "u," in words ending in "-au" and "-eu" is really a voiceless "w," so nouns with those endings change the "-u" to "-w-" when adding the "plural suffix." Thus: "tallegau" ('a crane') becomes "tallegawak" ('cranes'); and "machkateu" ('a hot coal') becomes "machkatewall" ('hot coals').

PARTICIPLES

In Lenape, there are "noun-like" forms of verbs which are called "participles" (we'll deal with these, in full, later on); but, for all practical purposes can be considered like nouns. For our present discussion, we should mention that the 3rd person singular forms of animate participles end in "-t" or "-nk," while inanimate participles end in vowel + "-k," for the most part. In addition, the "-t" ending changes to "-tsch-" when the plural ending is added. The plural suffixes for participles is "-ik" for animate gender, and "-il" for inanimate gender.  Here are some examples:

"kikehuwet" ('one who causes healing') becomes "kikehuwetschik" ('they who cause healing')

"maksenahet" ('one who makes shoes') becomes "maksenahetschik" ('they who make shoes')

"pepallistank" ('one who disbelieves') becomes "pepallistangik" ('they who disbelieve')

"elek" ('that which is') becomes "elekil" ('those which are')

"wehingelendasik" ('that which delights') becomes "wehingelendasikil" ('those which delight')


Next time: "obviation," "absence" and "location."

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#4 May-07-2014 01:19:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 2, NOUNS, PART 3


In this part, we will cover the three remaining "modifications" of the noun called, "obviation," "absence," and "location."

OBVIATION

In a Lenape phrase or sentence in which there is an "animate" noun that is the central figure of whatever action is taking place, that noun is the "primary noun." If two (or more) "animate" nouns are central figures of the action, then they are both (or all) "primary nouns."  ANY OTHER "ANIMATE" NOUN, in that phrase or sentence, is considered a "secondary noun."  For instance, in the sentence, 'The chief looks at the children and the servant' {"Na sakima pennawawall nel amemensall woak allogaganall"}, 'chief' ("sakima") is the "primary noun; 'children' ("amemensall") and 'servant' ("allogaganall") are "secondary nouns."  These "secondary nouns," as you can see, MUST be marked with the "obviative suffix," which is "-all."  ("Obviative" simply means 'other.')  Note that "sakima" ('chief') is the "primary noun," so it is NOT marked with the "obviative suffix."  If the sentence read, "Na sakima woak na nenbiges pennawawawall nel amemensall woak allogaganall" {'The chief and the sweat-doctor look at the children and the servant'}, then both "sakima" ('chief') and "nenbiges" ('sweat-doctor') are "primary nouns."

The "obviative suffix" looks identical to the "inanimate plural suffix," but don't be fooled. The "obviative suffix" serves to indicate all "secondary animate nouns," whether they are "singular" or "plural."  Thus, although "amemensall" ('children') is "plural," and "allogaganall" ('servant') is "singular," in this sentence, they are both marked with the "obviative suffix." The only way their number ("singular" or "plural") can be determined is by the context in which they appear.  For
instance, in other sentences, these words may mean 'child' and 'servants,' rather than 'children' and 'servant.'

POSSESSIVE OBVIATION

Any "animate noun" which is "possessed" by an "animate 3rd person" is also a "secondary noun," and therefore, takes the "obviative suffix."  Thus, "quis" ('your son') becomes "quisall" ('his [or 'her'] son' OR 'his [or 'her'] sons'); "damaskus" ('a muskrat') becomes "wdamaskusall" ('her [or 'his'] muskrat' OR 'her [or 'his'] muskrats').

RULE

Remember this:  A noun which is both "plural" AND "obviative" MUST take the "obviative suffix," rather than the "plural suffix."

PARTICIPLES

"Animate" participles show "obviation" in various ways. Most often, the participles which end in "-t" change the "-t" to "-tsch" and add the "obviative suffix" for participles, "-il." Thus, "geloget" ('one who curses') becomes "gelogetschil" ('one who curses' OR 'they who curse').  Sometimes, the final "-l" is dropped.  For instance, "pipinaxit" ('one who is chosen') may become "pipinaxitschi" ('one who is chosen' OR 'they who are chosen').  And sometimes an "obviative marker, "-li-," is placed before the 3rd person suffix.  In this case, a word like "gischigit" ('one who is born'') becomes "gischigilitschi" ('one who is born' OR 'they who are born').  At times, even the regular "-t" ending is kept when "-li-" is used to show "obviation," as in "gischigilit" (
one who is born' OR 'they who are born').  The method chosen to indicate "obviation" in participles seems to be entirely up to the speaker.

The "obviative suffix" can be added to either the "diminutive suffix" or the "possessive suffix."

ABSENCE

When "animate" beings or "inanimate" things are "absent" from the immediate scene of activity--such as when they are dead, gone away, present but asleep, eliminated, lost, etc.--an "absentative suffix" may be added to the nouns representing them.

The "animate singular absentative suffix" is "-a."  So, "ndallemuns" ('my pet') becomes "ndallemunsa" ('my dead pet').

The "inanimate singular absentative suffix" is "-e."  Thus, "uteney" ('a town') becomes "uteneye" ('a former town, no longer in existence').

The "plural" absentative suffix is "-unga." It serves for BOTH "animate" AND "inanimate" nouns. Therefore, "metimmeu" ('a wolf') becomes "metimmewunga" ('dead wolves'); and "askik" ('grass') becomes "askikwunga" ('withered grasses').

An "absentative animate noun" which is also "obviative" takes the "absentative obviative suffix," which is also "-unga."  Thus, "sakima" ('a chief') becomes "sakimawunga" ('a dead chief' OR 'dead chiefs'), if the absentative animate noun is obviative, as well.  The meaning must be determined by the context.

"Absence" is the noun "modification" most rarely encountered or used.  It goes unused even in some cases where one would expect to see it.

"Absentative suffixes" can be added to either the "diminutive" or "possessive" suffixes.

RULE:  A noun which is "plural" or "obviative" OR "plural" and "obviative" MUST use an "absentative suffix" if it is also "absentative."

LOCATION

The "locative suffix" is "-nk."  It is certainly the most familiar Lenape form to non-Lenape speakers, since it occurs in many placenames throughout the old Lenape homeland, and in all places the Lenape inhabited during their westward migration (see "Watchung," "Minisink," "Assiscunk," "Wyalusing," "Kittaning," "Wheeling," etc., etc.)  Its primary meanings are "in," "on," "at," etc. ("hoosink" - 'in the kettle' / "hackink" - 'on the ground'). In Northern Unami, it is also used to "mark" which noun goes with certain particular parts-of-speech in a sentence. The word for island is "menatey;" but in the phrase, "ochqueu eep menatewunk li" {'the woman went to the island'}, we know that the word, "li" ('to'), refers to the 'island' because the word for 'island' is marked with the "locative suffix," "-nk."

The "locative suffix" serves for both "animate" and "inanimate" nouns.

A noun with a "locative suffix" may be either "singular" or "plural," "obviative" or "absentative."  If it is also "locative," then the "locative suffix" is used instead of any of the others. The word, "achsinnink" can mean 'on the stone,' 'on the stones,' 'on the lost stones, etc., etc.

Nouns ending in consonants add an "-i-" before the "-nk" ("hakihakan" - 'a field' becomes "hakihakanink" - 'in the field'). Those ending in "-k" (really "-kw") drop the "w" and end in "-unk" ("mehittuk" - 'a tree' becomes "mehittgunk" - 'in the tree'). Those ending in "-a" (really "-au") re-insert the "-w" and take the shape of "-wunk" ("sakima" - 'a chief' becomes "sakimawunk" - 'on the chief'). Those ending in other vowels generally add the "locative suffix" directly to the vowel ("mbi" - 'water' becomes "mbink" - 'in the water' / "wachtschu" - 'a mountain' becomes "wachtschunk" - 'on the mountain' OR 'in the mountains,' etc.).

Nouns ending in "-ney" drop the "-ey" and then add "-ink" as the "locative suffix" ("uteney" - 'a town' becomes "utenink" - 'in the town'. Those ending in "-key" drop the "-y" and then add the "locative suffix" ("hockey" - 'his body' becomes "hockenk" - 'in his body').

In the next part, we'll review what we've learned, to date.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#5 May-07-2014 01:21:pm

sschkaak
Moderator
Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 2, NOUNS, PART 4


In this part of the lesson, I'd like to simply review what we've covered, so far, on the various forms taken by Lenape nouns.

GENDER

Nouns are either animate (for example, "ochqueu" - 'a woman') or inanimate (for example, "sipo" - 'a creek').

MODIFICATIONS

The meaning of nouns can be modified by adding suffixes and prefixes to the singular forms of nouns. Those modifications are:

DIMINUTION

The suffix, "-tit," changes the meaning of a noun to a diminutive form of the original (for example, "nachenum" - 'a raccoon' becomes "nachenumtit" - 'a little raccoon' AND "amochol" - 'a dugout canoe' becomes "amocholittit" - 'a little dugout canoe').

POSSESSION

The prefixes, "n-," "k-," "w-," indicate that a noun is possessed by a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd person, respectively.  The suffixes, "-enna" and "-uwa," indicate that the noun is 1st person plural or 2nd or 3rd person plural, respectively (for example, "moekaneu" - 'a dog' becomes "nmoekaneu" - 'my dog' or "kmoekaneu" - 'our dog' [yours & mine] AND "tschimakan" - 'a paddle' becomes "wtschimakan" - 'his paddle' or "ktschimakanuwa" - 'your [pl.] paddle').

PLURALITY

The suffixes, "-ak" and "-all," pluralize the singular forms of animate and inanimate nouns, respectively (for example, "topi" - 'an alder tree' becomes "topiak" - 'alder trees' AND "meschakan" - 'a wound' becomes "meschakanall" - 'wounds').

OBIVIATION

The suffix, "-all," is used to show that an animate noun is a secondary 3rd person in a phrase or sentence, or that it is possessed by another 3rd person (for example, "tschinque" - 'a bobcat' becomes "tschinquewall" - 'a bobcat' or 'bobcats' in a phrase like "pendawawall tschinquewall" - 'she hears a bobcat' AND "nimat" - 'my brother' becomes "wimachtall" ('his brother' or 'his brothers').

ABSENCE

The suffixes, "-a" and "-e," on animate and inanimate nouns, respectively, show that that noun is not present--either physically or mentally (for example, "ahas" - 'a crow' becomes "ahasa" - 'a dead
crow' AND "alluns" - 'an arrow' becomes "allunse" - 'a lost arrow').

The suffix, "-unga," pluralizes both animate and inanimate absentative nouns (for example, "gunnamochk" - 'an otter' becomes "gunnamochkunga" - 'dead otters' OR "demasksalo" - 'a file' becomes "demasksalowunga" - 'missing files').

The suffix, "-unga," also serves to indicate obviative absentative animate nouns (for example, "tschikenum" - 'a turkey' becomes "wtschikenunga" - 'his dead turkey' or 'his dead turkeys').

LOCATION

The suffix, "-nk," changes the meaning of a noun to indicate its whereabouts, or to show its relation to a particular part-of-speech (for example, "hoos" - 'a kettle' becomes "hoosink" - 'in the kettle' AND "wikwam" - 'a house' becomes "wikwahemink li" - 'to the house').

Always remember that any noun can show any single modification, but no more than three modifications, at a time (diminution, possession, plus one of the other four).

This is just a quick review. Be sure to study the whole lesson for additional important details.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

Last edited by sschkaak (May-09-2014 06:59:am)

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#6 May-08-2014 11:54:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Registered: Sep-11-2007
Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Wasn't that Lesson 2, Part 4? I'm so glad you are posting these again. Since you tweak them each time, I try to copy them again to keep my notebook up-to-date. It's hard to believe I've been trying to discipline myself to learn this since 2001...


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#7 May-09-2014 06:59:am

sschkaak
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Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Yes.  Thanks, Paul.  Correction made.  [edit to correct "correctoion"  lol ]

Last edited by sschkaak (May-09-2014 07:03:am)

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#8 May-09-2014 07:05:am

sschkaak
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

By the way, I'm only posting the lessons.  I'm not going to bother with the exercises or tests, this time.

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#9 May-09-2014 10:09:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Registered: Sep-11-2007
Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I have all of those so, if there are no necessary corrections to them, I'll just append them to this edition.


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#10 May-11-2014 11:45:am

JeremyS
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Posts: 7

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Are there many others here that are going through these lessons?  I have been going over them on and off for a few years.  Ray has given me lots of insight and help with the lessons.  I would love to find someone else who has been enjoying them and get some conversation going back and forth in the language.

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#11 May-11-2014 11:53:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
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Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I should mention that thanks to Jeremy I was able to copy and paste the last version of my lessons, which had been sent out by webtv.  After webtv went defunct, I lost all but my hard copies, which I would not be able to type up, now, due to my carpal tunnel symptoms.  Even those were a few years old, but I can function good enough to make the slight changes needed to update the lessons for today.  I hope enough people will be interested in Jeremy's idea to get involved.  If they do, maybe I'll re-post some newer exercises.  (But, no tests!  LOL! )

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#12 May-12-2014 10:41:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Registered: Sep-11-2007
Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Unfortunately, Jeremy, I never reached that level of fluency. I did really well until I went to farrier school (2004) and began self-employment. Now, ten years later, I still find that I have very little free time available... But I know there is at least one person on this forum who could correspond with you in Mission Delaware.


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#13 May-14-2014 10:07:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3, PRONOUNS, PART 1

In this lesson, we will cover Lenape pronouns--both "free" and "bound."

In this part, we will deal with the "free" pronouns, which are simply those words which are used as substitutes for nouns ['who,' 'somebody,' 'what,' 'something,' 'some, 'another,' 'this,' 'that,' 'these,' 'those,' 'I,' 'you (sg.),' 'he,' 'she,' 'we,' 'you (pl.),' 'they,' etc., etc.].

RELATIVE & INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

The pronoun, "keku" or "koecu," means 'something' or 'some things,' and refers to an inanimate thing or inanimate things. When used in questions, it means 'What?'

The pronoun, "auween," means 'someone,' and refers to animate beings.  Its plural form is "auweenik ('some living beings'). These two forms can usually be translated as 'a person' and 'persons,' respectively, since these are the animate beings referred to in most contexts. The obviative form is "auweenil" ('a person' OR 'persons'). The obviative sometimes drops this "-l," and appears as "auweeni."  In questions (and sometimes in statements), these forms mean 'Who?' (or 'who').  "Auween" can take a locative suffix: "Auweenink" - 'to whom,' 'by whom,' 'from whom,' etc. It can also take the future marker, "-tsch," after a euphonic connective, "-i-" - "auweenitsch" ('Who will?' or 'someone will').

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

The first form is "regular" (for example, 'I saw that ["na"] cat'), and the second form is "emphatic" (for example, 'I saw THAT ["nan"] cat').

Animate:

'this one' = "woa" or "won"
'these' = "juk" or "jukik"
'that one' = "na" or "nan"
'those' = "nek" / "nik" or "nekik" / "nikik"

Obviative:

'this one' or 'these' = "jul" or "julik"
'that one' or 'those' = "nel" / "nil" or "negil"

Animate Absentative:

'that one' = "naga"
'those' = "nekachge"
'that one' or 'those' (obviative) = "nekachge"

Inanimate:

'this one' = "ju" or "jun"
'these' = "jul"
'that one' = "ne" or "nen"
'those' = "nel" / "nil"

Inanimate Absentative:

'that one' = "nike"
'those' = "nekachge"

MISCELLANEOUS PRONOUNS

'some' = "alende"
'another' = "ktakan"

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

'I' or 'my' = "ni"
'you (sg.)' or 'your (sg.)' = "ki"
'he' or 'his' / 'she' or 'her' = "necama" or "neca"
'we (excl.)' or 'our (ex.)' = "niluna"
'we (excl.)' or 'our (ex.)' = "nilunook" (when speaking for many people)
'we (incl.)' or 'our (in.)' = "kiluna"
'we (incl.)' or 'our (in.)' = "kilunook" (when speaking for many people)
'you (pl.)' or 'your (pl.)' = "kiluwa"
'they' or 'their' = "necamawa"

The above pronouns are nominative ('I,' 'you,' 'he,' etc.) when preceding a verb ("ni nemen" = 'I see it').  They are, more rarely, possessive ('my,' 'your,' 'his', etc.) when preceding a noun ("neca
wtappandewagan" = 'his commandment'). In the latter case, the noun almost always bears the bound personal pronouns, as well. (See next parts of this lesson.)

When "ni" and "ki" are used as possessive pronouns, the prefixes of the "bound" possessive pronouns become, in a sense, "suffixed" to the "free" pronouns--both in writing and pronouncing ("ni ndauwukenum" becomes "nin dauwukenum" ('my things') / "ki kpambil" becomes "kik pambil" ('your (sg.) book').

In the next part, we'll cover the "bound" first person pronoun.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#14 May-14-2014 10:09:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3, PRONOUNS, PART 2

It is now time to cover the "bound" possessive personal pronouns which are affixed to nouns.  From Lesson 2, Part 1, you will recall that the prefixes for first person ('my' & 'our'), second person ('your'
[singular & plural]), and third person ('his' or 'her' & 'their') were "n-," "k-" and "w-," respectively.  This is true. HOWEVER, we can't always just take one of these prefixes and tack it onto a noun to express "possession."  We CAN'T say, "nhattapi" ('my bow'), nor "kquis" ('your [sg.] son'), nor "wpuschis" ('her cat'), nor other similar erroneous constructions, some of which have actually
appeared in published works!  There are MANY phonetic shifts (that is, 'changes in sound') which affect these prefixes--depending on what letter, or combination of letters, begins the noun being prefixed.  In this part, we will cover the first person prefix, "n-."

THE POSSESSIVE MARKER

As noted in Lesson 2, Part 1:  Many possessed nouns are suffixed with the Lenape "possessive marker," "-umm" or "-um," which, when used, is added to the noun BEFORE any other modifying suffixes.  The occurrence and use of the "possessive marker" is somewhat unpredictable. In the early dialects (such as Northern Unami), it appears to be optional, being used at the speaker's discretion. For example, we find both "ndamemens" ('my child') and  "ndamemensum" ('my child').  It never occurs in nouns ending in "-kan" or "-gan."  When suffixed to a noun ending in a vowel, a euphonic "-j-" precedes the "possessive marker" ("kappe" -'coffee' becomes "ngappejum" - 'my coffee').  In the examples below, some forms show the "possessive marker," and some don't.

FIRST PERSON POSSESSIVE PREFIX

"n-" is the first person possessive prefix. There are several methods to illustrate the various ways this prefix is added to nouns. I've chosen to show how it is prefixed to each letter of the alphabet, in order, as found in the Moravian works.

When a noun begins with the letter:

"a-," the first person prefix and the noun are attached by an intervening euphonic "-d-" ["ahoaltowoagan" - 'love' becomes "ndahoaltowoagan" - 'my love'];

"b-," the first person prefix changes to "m-," and is attached directly ["bambil" - 'book' becomes "mbambilum" - 'my book'];

"c-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["ceppitsch" - 'cabbage' becomes "ngeppitsch" - 'my cabbage'];

"ch-," the first person prefix is attached directly to nouns which MUST be possessed ["nchans" - 'my older brother']; BUT, in nouns which need not be possessed, it is attached by an intervening euphonic, "-da-" ["chasquim" - 'corn' becomes "ndachasquim" - 'my corn'];

"d-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["demasksalo" - 'file' becomes "ndemasksalo" - 'my file'];

"e-," the first person prefix is attached by an intervening euphonic, "-d-" ["ewochgehikan" - 'stirring ladle' becomes "ndewochgehikan" -'my stirring ladle'];

"g-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["guttagan" - 'throat' becomes "nguttagan" - 'my throat'];

"h-," the first person prefix is attached directly to nouns which MUST be possessed ["nhackey" - 'my body'].  In other nouns, the first person prefix is SOMETIMES attached by an intervening euphonic, "-d-," AFTER dropping the "h-" ["hattapi" - 'bow' becomes "ndattapi" - 'my bow' and "hakihakan" - 'plantation' becomes "ndakihakan" - 'my plantation']; but SOMETIMES the prefix is attached by an intervening euphonic, "-da-" ["hasis" - 'horse' becomes "ndahasisum" - 'my horse'];

"ho-," the first person prefix is SOMETIMES attached directly to the noun, AFTER dropping the "h-" ["hobbenis" - 'potato' becomes "nobbenis" - 'my potato' and "hokquoan" - 'pothook' becomes "nokquoan" - 'my pothook'].  At other times, the prefix is attached by an intervening euphonic "-da-" ["hoos" - "kettle" becomes "ndahoosum" - "my kettle];

"i-," the first person prefix is attached directly to nouns which MUST be possessed ["nil" - 'my head']; otherwise, the first person prefix is attached by an intervening euphonic, "-d-" ["ilau" - 'warrior' becomes "ndilau" - 'my warrior'];

"j-," the first person prefix is attached by an intervening euphonic, "-i-" ["jahellap" - 'net' becomes "nijahellapum" - 'my net'];

"k-," the first person prefix is attached directly, and the "k-" changes to "-g-" ["keek" - 'wampum bead' becomes "ngeekum" - 'my wampum bead'];

"kt-," the first person prefix changes the "kt-" to "nt-" (sounds like "nd-") ["ktschukwiwagan" - 'movement' becomes "ntschukwiwagan" - 'my movement'];

"l-," the first person prefix is SOMETIMES attached directly ["lokat" - 'flour' beomes "nlokatum" - 'my flour']; it is SOMETIMES attached by an intervening euphonic, "-d-," AFTER dropping the "l-" ["lennape" - 'Delaware Indian' becomes "ndennape" - 'my Delaware Indian']; but, SOMETIMES it is attached by an intevening euphonic, "-de-" ["lennape" - 'human being' becomes "ndelennapejum" - 'my human being'] (these last two examples seem to show that the prefixation, with regard to this
word, at least, is the speaker's choice);

"m-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["mizoagan" - 'food' becomes "nmizoagan" - 'my food'];

"n-," the first person prefix MAY be attached directly ["nonschetto" - 'doe' becomes "nnonschetto" - 'my doe']; but, in many cases, and especially in nouns which MUST be possessed, it MAY, at the speaker's discretion, merge with the initial "n-" of the noun ["nitschan" - 'child' becomes "nitschan" - 'my child'];

"o-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["ojos" - 'flesh' becomes "nojosum" - 'my flesh'];

"p-," the first person prefix is attached directly, BUT the first person prefix changes to "m-" and the "p-" changes to "-b-" ["pachkschikan" - 'knife' becomes "mbachkschikan" - 'my knife']'

"q-," the first person prefix is attached directly, and the "q-" is pronounced like a "-g-" ["queenischkuney" - 'mountain lion' becomes "nqueenischkuney" - 'my mountain lion'];

"s-," the first person prefix is attached directly ["sakima" - 'chief' becomes "nsakima" - 'my chief']'

"t-," the first person prefix is attached directly, and the "t-" changes to "-d-" ["tatask" - 'sled' becomes "ndatask" - 'my sled'];

"u-," the first person prefix is attached to the noun by an  intervening euphonic, "-d-" ["uteney" - 'town' becomes "nduteney" - 'my town']'

"w-," the first person prefix is SOMETIMES attached directly ["waselenikan" - 'candle' becomes "nwaselenikan" - 'my candle']; but an alternative method uses an intervening euphonic, "-o-"
["waselenikan" - 'candle' becomes "nowaselenikan" - 'my candle'];

"wt-," the first person prefix changes the "wt-" to "nd-" ["wtajikan" - 'furniture' becomes "ndajikan" - 'my furniture'];

"wu-," the first person prefix changes the "wu-" to "noo-" ["wulamallsoagan" - 'good health' becomes "noolamallsoagan" - 'my good health'];

"y-," is the same as "j-."

"z-," is the same as "t-."

Next time, we'll cover the bound personal pronoun prefixes for the second person.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#15 May-14-2014 10:10:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3, PRONOUNS, PART 3

In this part, we will cover the second person possessive prefix. We will use the same nouns as in the last part, in order to see the similarities and differences between the first and second persons, in
prefixation.

SECOND PERSON POSSESSIVE PREFIX

When a noun begins with:

"a-," "e-," "i-" or "u-," the second person prefix is attached via a euphonic, "-t-" ["ahoaltowoagan" - 'love' > "ktahoaltowoagan" - 'your (sg.) love'] & ["ewochgehikan" - 'stirring ladle' > "ktewochgehikan" - 'your (sg.) stirring ladle'] & ["ilau" - 'war captain' > "ktilau" - 'your (sg.) war captain'] & ["uteney" - 'town' > "ktuteney" - 'your (sg.) town']; in nouns which MUST be possessed, it is attached directly to the stem ["kil" - 'your (sg.) head'];

"b-" or "p-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["bambil" - 'book' > "kpambilum" - 'your (sg.) book'] & ["pachkschikan" - 'knife' > "kpachkschikan" - 'your (sg.) knife'];

"c-," "g-," "k-" or "q-," the second person prefix merges with the initial letter ["ceppitsch" - 'cabbage' or 'your (sg.) cabbage'] & ["guttagan" - 'throat' or 'your (sg.) throat'] & ["keek" - 'wampum bead,' BUT "keekum" - 'your (sg.) wampum bead'] & ["queenischkuney" - 'mountain lion' or 'your (sg.) mountain lion'];

"ch-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["chasquim" - 'corn' > "kchasquim" - 'your (sg.) corn' OR with an intervening euphonic "-ta-" > "ktachasquim" - 'your (sg.) corn'];

"d-," "t-" or "z-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["demasksalo" - 'file' > "ktemasksalo" - 'your (sg.) file'] & ["tatask" - 'sled' > "ktatask" - 'your (sg.) sled'] & ["zelozelos" - 'cricket' > "kzelozelos" - 'your (sg.) cricket'];

"h-," the second person prefix is SOMETIMES attached by a euphonic, "-t-," AFTER dropping the "h-" ["hattapi" - 'bow' > "ktattapi" - 'your (sg.) bow' & "hakihakan" - 'plantation" > "ktakihakan" - 'your (sg.) plantation']; SOMETIMES it is attached by a euphonic, "-ta-" ["hasis" - 'horse' > "ktahasis" - 'your (sg.) horse']; in nouns which MUST be possessed, it is attached directly ["khakey" - 'your (sg.) body'];

"ho-," the second person prefix is attached directly to the noun, AFTER dropping the "h-" ["hobbenis" - 'potato' > "kobbenis" - 'your (sg.) potato' & "hokquoan" - 'pothook' > "kokquoan" - 'your (sg.)
pothook'];

"j-" or "y-," the second person prefix is attached by a euphonic, "-i-" ["jahellap" - 'net' > "kijahellapum" - 'your (sg.) net'];

"l-," the second person prefix is SOMETIMES attached directly ["lokat" -'flour' > "klokat" - 'your (sg.) flour']; SOMETIMES it is attached by a euphonic, "-te-" ["lennape" - 'Delaware Indian' > "ktelennape" - 'your (sg.) Delaware Indian']; and SOMETIMES it is attached by a euphonic, "-t-," AFTER dropping the "l-" ["lennape" - 'human being' > "ktennape" - 'your (sg.) human being'];

"m" or "n," the second person prefix is attached directly, BUT often spelled with a short "-e-" (really representing a schwa, in these cases) after the "k-" prefix ["mizoagan" - 'food' >"kemizoagan" - 'your (sg.) food'] & ["nonschetto" - 'doe' > "kenonschetto" - 'your (sg.) doe'];

"nd-," changes to "kt-" ["ndotemawachtowoagan" - 'examination' > "ktotemawachtowoagan" - 'your (sg.) examination'];

"o-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["ojos" - 'flesh' > "kojosum" - 'your (sg.) flesh'];

"s-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["sakima" - 'chief' > "ksakima" - 'your (sg.) chief'];

"w-," the second person prefix is attached directly ["waselenikan" - 'candle' > "kwaselenikan" - 'your (sg.) candle']; OR [an intervening euphonic "-o-" is inserted > "kowaselenikan" - 'your (sg.) candle']

"wh-," the second person prefix is attached directly, AFTER dropping the "wh-," in nouns which MUST be possessed ["whittuwak" - 'someone's ear' > "kittuwak" - 'your (sg.) ear'];

"wt-," the second person prefix is attached directly, AFTER dropping the "w-" ["wtajikan" - 'furniture' > "ktajikan" - 'your (sg.) furniture'];

"wu-," changes to "koo-" ["wulamallsoagan" - 'good health' > "koolamallsoagan" - 'your (sg.) good health'].

Next time, we'll cover the third person possessive prefix.

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#16 May-14-2014 10:12:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3: PRONOUNS, PART 4


In this part, we will cover the third person possessive prefix.  We will use the same nouns that were used in the second and third parts of this lesson, in order to highlight the differences among the three different person prefixes.

In this part, you will take notice of the fact that ALL of the animate nouns MUST take the obviative suffix.  As before, some nouns have the "possessive marker"
("-umm-" OR "-um-") and some don't.

THIRD PERSON POSSESSIVE PREFIX

When a noun begins with:

ANY consonant (except "h" and "w") + "o" or "u," the third person prefix merges with the "o" or "u" ["pommauchsowoagan" - 'life' or 'her life' / "puschis" - 'cat,' but "puschisall" - 'her cat' or 'her cats']. Other exceptions are "obligatorily possessed" nouns (nouns which MUST be possessed, like body parts), beginning with "m-," which sometimes show redundant prefixing ["mhuk" - 'blood' > "moocum" OR "omoocum" - 'his blood'];

"a," "e," "i" or "u," the 3rd person prefix is "w-" + euphonic "-t-" ["ahoaltowoagan" - 'love' /  "wtahaoaltowoagan" - 'his love' & "ewochgehikan" - 'stirring ladle' /  "wtewochgehikan" - 'her stirring ladle' & "ilau" - 'war captain' / "wtilawall" - 'his war captain' & "uteney" - 'town' / "wtuteney" - 'his town'];

Noun stems in "-i-," which MUST be "possessed," take the 3rd person prefix directly ["wil" - 'her head'];

"b" or "p," the 3rd person prefix is "o-" ["bambil" - 'book' /  "opambilumall" - 'his book" & "pachkschikan" - 'knife' /  "opachkschikan" - 'her knife'];

"c," "g," "k" or "q," the 3rd person prefix becomes "qu-" (actually, "kw-," but usually written "qu-") ["ceppitsch" - 'cabbage' /  "queppitsch" - 'her cabbage' & "guttagan" - 'throat' or 'his throat' (see "consonant  + u" rule, above) & "keek" - 'wampum bead' /
"queegummall" - 'her wampum bead(s)' & "queenischkuney" - 'mountain lion' / "queenischkuneyall" - 'his mountain lion(s)'];

"ch," the 3rd person prefix is "-o-," and it FOLLOWS the "ch-" ["chasquim" - 'corn' /
"choasquim" - 'her corn'];

"d," "t" or "z," the 3rd person prefix is attached directly ["damasksalo" - 'a file' /
"wtamasksalo" - 'his file' & "tauwooma" - 'sister' /  "wtauwoomawall" - 'her sister(s)' & "zelozelos" - 'cricket' /  "wzelozelosall" - 'his cricket(s)'];

"h," the 3rd person prefix is SOMETIMES attached to the noun by a euphonic "-t-," AFTER dropping the "h" ["hakihakan" - 'plantation' /  "wtakihakan" - 'her plantation' & SOMETIMES it is attached by a euphonic "-ta-" ["hasis" - 'horse' /  "wtahasisumall" - 'his horse(s)']; Nouns which MUST be possessed have unique and redundant 3rd person indicators, SOMETIMES ["whockey" - 'his body,' but also "hockey" - 'his body'];

"ho," the 3rd person prefix is added directly, AFTER dropping the "h-" ["hobbenis" - 'potato' / "wobbenis" - 'her potato'];

"j," the 3rd person prefix is NOT attached ["jahellap" - 'a net' / "jahellapumall" - 'his net(s)'];

"l," the 3rd person prefix merges with the vowel, if the noun begins "lo-" or "lu-" (as in the rule above) ["lokat" - 'flour' /  "lokatum" - 'her flour"]; SOMETIMES it is attached by a euphonic "-te-" ["lennapewak" - 'Delaware Indians" /  "wtellennapejumall" - 'his Delaware Indian(s)"]; and SOMETIMES by euphonic "-te-," AFTER dropping the "l-" ["lennapewak" - 'Delaware Indians' /  "wtennapejumall" - 'her Delaware Indian(s)'];

"m," the 3rd person prefix is "o-" ["mizoagan" - 'food' / "omizoagan" - 'her food' & "mhuk" - 'blood' / "omoocum" - 'his blood,' BUT sometimes just "moocum" - 'his blood'];

"n," the 3rd person prefix is "wu-" ["nenajungees" - 'horse' / "wunenajungeesumall" - 'her horse(s)']; BUT, ("nonschetto" - 'doe' / "nonschettowall" - 'his doe(s),' as shown in the rule above);

"nd" and "kt," change to "wt-" for 3rd person ["n'dotemawachtowoagan" - 'examination' / "wtotemawachtowoagan" - 'his examination' & "ktschukwiwoagan" - 'movement' /  "wtschukwiwoagan" - 'her movement'];

"o," the 3rd person prefix is "wu-," and it replaces the "o-" ["ojos" - 'flesh' / "wujoosum" - 'his flesh'];

"s," the 3rd person prefix is "o-" ["sakima" - 'a chief' /  "osakimawall" - 'his chief(s)'];

"w," the 3rd person prefix is "o-" ["waselenikan" - 'a candle' / "owaselenikan" - 'her candle'];

"wi-," the 3rd person prefix is "wu-," and the "w-" is dropped ["winamallsoagan" - 'illness' / "wuinamallsoagan" - 'his illness'];

"wu," the 3rd person prefix changes the "wu-" to "o-" ["wulamallsoagan" - 'good health' / "olamallsoagan" - 'her good health'].

Next time, we'll cover the personal pronoun possessive suffixes (i.e., plurals).


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#17 May-14-2014 10:13:am

sschkaak
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Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3: PRONOUNS, PART 5


In this part of the lesson we will cover the plural suffixes for the bound personal pronouns. There is not nearly as much diversity in the sound of these endings as there was with the prefixes.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN PLURAL SUFFIXES

The pronoun suffix for first person plural ('our') is "-nna," preceded by a connective vowel, when this is the last suffix on a noun. When other modifying suffixes ("noun plural," "obviative," "absentative," or "locative") are added on to the word, then the first person plural suffix is "-nnan-," preceded by a connective vowel.

The pronoun suffix for second AND third person plural ('your [pl.] & 'their') is "-wa," preceded by a connective vowel, when this is the last suffix on a noun. When other modifying suffixes are added on to the word, then the suffix is "-waw-," preceded by a connective vowel.

EXAMPLES

Here are examples of the use of these suffixes, using the words we are already familiar with from the previous parts of this lesson. (Take note that the personal possessive pronoun PREFIXES are the same whether singular or plural.)

"ndahoaltowoaganenna" ['our love']
"ndahoaltowoaganennanink ['in our love']

"ktewochgehikanuwa" ['your (pl.) stirring ladle']
"ktewochgehikanuwawall" ['your (pl.) stirring ladles']

"wtilawuwawall" ['their war captain' or 'their war captains'];
"wtilawuwawunk" ['on their war captain' or 'on their war captains']
(In Northern Unami, obviative nouns can, according to Zeisberger, show definite pluralization by repeating a syllable.  Thus:  "wtilawuwawawall" ['their war captains'].)

"nduteneyenna" ['our town']
"nduteneyennanink" ['in our town' or 'in our towns']

"kpambilumuwa" ['your (pl.) book']
"kpambilumuwawak" ['your (pl.) books']

"opachkschikanuwa" ['their knife']
"opachkschikanuwawunga" ['their lost knives']

"ngeppitschenna" ['our cabbage']
"ngeppitschennanall" ['our cabbages']

"keegumuwa" ['your (pl.) wampum bead']
"keegumuwawunk" ['on your (pl.) wampum bead' or 'on your (pl.) wampum beads']

"queenischkuneyuwawall" ['their mountain lion' or 'their mountain lions'] "queenischkuneyuwawunga" ['their dead mountain lion' or 'their dead mountain lions']

"nchasquimenna" ['our corn']
"nchasquimennanink ['in our corn']

"ktamasksaluwa" ['your (pl.) file']
"ktamasksaluwawall" ['your (pl.) files']

"wzeloszelosuwawall" ['their cricket' or 'their crickets']
"wzeloszelosuwawunk ['on their cricket' or 'on their crickets']

"ndakihakanenna" ['our plantation']
"ndakihakanennanall ['our plantations']

"klokatumuwa" ['your (pl.) flour']
"klokatumuwawunk" ['in your (pl.) flour']

"wtennapejumuwawall" ['their Delaware Indian' or 'their Delaware Indians'] "wtennapejumuwawunga ['their deceased Delaware Indian' or their deceased Delaware Indians']
"wtennapejumuwawawall" ['their Delaware Indians' - this is the definite plural with repeated syllable, "-wa-"]

Well, this should be enough to give you the idea. You should be able to apply these possessive pronouns to any other nouns you come across--using the examples given.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#18 May-14-2014 10:16:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 3: PRONOUNS, REVIEW


In this review, we obviously can't cover every possible pronoun prefix form; otherwise, we'd merely be repeating the entire lesson. Instead, we'll take one animate noun and go over the possessive forms--both with and without other modifying suffixes, and with and without the
possessive marker. Our animate noun will be "allumes" ('puppy'). Of course, we're not going to list every single possible combination, but enough to show what we've learned to say in the lessons, to date.

POSSESSIVE SINGULAR FORMS

my puppy         = ndallumes
your (sg.) puppy     = ktallumes
her puppy         = wtallumsall
our (excl.) puppy     = ndallumsenna
our (incl.) puppy     = ktallumsenna
your (pl.) puppy     = ktallumsuwa
their puppy         = wtallumsuwawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my puppy         = ndallumsum
your (sg.) puppy     = ktallumsum
her puppy         = wtallumsumall
our (excl.) puppy     = ndallumsumenna
our (incl.) puppy     = ktallumsumenna
your (pl.) puppy     = ktallumsumuwa
their puppy         = wtallumsumuwawall

DIMINUTIVE FORMS

my little puppy     = ndallumetit
your (sg.) little puppy    = ktallumetit
his little puppy     = wtallumetittall
our (excl.) little puppy = ndallumetittenna
our (incl.) little puppy     = ktallumetittenna
your (pl.) little puppy    = ktallumetittuwa
their little puppy     = wtallumetittuwawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my little puppy     = ndallumetittum
your (sg.) little puppy    = ktallumetittum
his little puppy     = wtallumetittum
our (excl.) little puppy = ndallumetittummenna
our (incl.) little puppy     = ktallumetittummenna
your (pl) little puppy     = ktallumetittummuwa
their little puppy     = wtallumetittummuwawall

POSSESSIVE PLURAL FORMS

my puppies         = ndallumsak
your (sg.) puppies    = ktallumsak
her puppies         = wtallumsall
our (excl.) puppies     = ndallumsennanak
our (incl.) puppies     = ktallumsennanak
your (pl.) puppies     = ktallumsuwawak
their puppies         = wtallumsuwawall
OR their puppies     = wtallumsuwawawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my puppies         = ndallumsummak
your (sg.) puppies     = ktallumsummak
her puppies         = wtallumsummall
our (excl.) puppies     = ndallumsummennanak
our (incl.) puppies     = ktallumsummennanak
your (pl.) puppies     = ktallumsummuwawak
their puppies         = wtallumsummuwawall
OR their puppies     = wtallumsummuwawawall

DIMINUTIVE PLURAL FORMS

my little puppies         = ndallumetittak
your (sg.) little puppies     = ktallumetittak
his little puppies         = wtallumetittall
our (excl.) puppies         = ndallumetittennanak
our (incl.) puppies         = ktallumetittennanak
your (pl.) puppies         = ktallumetittuwawak
their puppies             = wtallumetittuwawall
OR their puppies         = wtallumetittuwawawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my little puppies         = ndallumetittummak
your (sg.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummak
his little puppies         = wtallumetittummall
our (excl.) little puppies     = ndallumetittummennanak
our (incl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummennanak
your (pl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummuwawak
their little puppies         = wtallumetittummuwawall
OR their little puppies        = wtallumetittummuwawawall

POSSESSIVE OBVIATIVE FORMS

my puppy OR my puppies             = ndallumsall
your (sg.) puppy OR your (sg.) puppies     = ktallumsall
her puppy OR her puppies             = wtallumsall
our (excl.) puppy OR our (excl.) puppies     = ndallumsennanall
our (incl.) puppy OR our (incl.) puppies          = ktallumsennanall
your (pl.) puppy OR your (pl.) puppies     = ktallumsuwawall
their puppy OR their puppies             = wtallumsuwawall
OR their puppies                 = wtallumsuwawawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my puppy OR my puppies             = ndallumsummall
your (sg.) puppy OR your (sg.) puppies     = ktallumsummall
her puppy OR her puppies             = wtallumsummall
our (excl.) puppy OR our (excl.) puppies     = ndallumsummennanall
our (incl.) puppy OR our (incl.) puppies     = ktallumsummennanall
your (pl.) puppy OR your (pl.) puppies     = ktallumsummuwawall
their puppy OR their puppies             = wtallumsummuwawall
OR their puppies                 = wtallumsummuwawawall

DIMINUTIVE OBVIATIVE FORMS

my little puppy OR my little puppies             = ndallumetittall
your (sg.) little puppy OR your (sg.) little puppies     = ktallumetittall
his little puppy OR his little puppies             = wtallumetittall
our (excl.) little puppy OR our (excl.) little puppies     = ndallumetittennanall
our (incl.) little puppy OR our (incl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittennanall
your (pl.) little puppy OR your (pl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittuwawall
their little puppy OR their little puppies         = wtallumetittuwawall
OR their little puppies                 = wtallumetittuwawawall

OR (with possessive marker)

my little puppy OR my little puppies             = ndallumetittummall
your (sg.) little puppy OR your (sg.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummall
his little puppy OR his little puppies             = wtallumetittummall
our (excl.) little puppy OR our (excl.) little puppies     = ndallumetittummennanall
our (incl.) little puppy OR our (incl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummennanall
your (pl.) little puppy OR your (pl.) little puppies     = ktallumetittummuwawall
their little puppy OR their little puppies         = wtallumetittummuwawall
OR their little puppies                 = wtallumetittummuwawawall

POSSESSIVE SINGULAR ABSENTATIVE FORMS

my dead (or lost) puppy         = ndallumsa
your (sg.) dead (or lost) puppy    = ktallumsa
her dead (or lost) puppy         = wtallumsunga
our (excl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ndallumsennana
our (incl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ktallumsennana
your (pl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ktallumsuwawa
their dead (or lost) puppy         = wtallumsuwawunga

OR (with possessive marker)

my dead (or lost) puppy         = ndallumsumma
your (sg.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ktallumsumma
her dead (or lost) puppy         = wtallumsummunga
our (excl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ndallumsummennana
our (incl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ktallumsummennana
your (pl.) dead (or lost) puppy     = ktallumsummuwawa
their dead (or lost) puppy         = wtallumsummuwawunga

SOME LOCATIVE FORMS

on my puppy                = ndallumsink
on your (sg.) little puppy        = ktallumetittink
on her dead puppy            = wtallumsink
on our (excl.) little puppies        = ndallumetittennanink
on our (incl.) lost little puppies = ktallumetittummennanink
on your (pl.) puppies            = ktallumsuwawunk
on their little puppy            = wtallumetittummuwawunk

You get the idea!  Just remember that only three modifying suffixes (plus the possessive marker) can be attached to a noun, at any one time, and in the proper order (diminutive suffix, possessive marker, possessive suffix, then one of the last four); and, that of the last
four modifying suffixes (plural, obviative, absentative, locative) the first gives way to any of the last three; the second gives way to either of the last two; and the third gives way to the last one.

When suffixing inanimate nouns, remember that there is no obiviative modifier, and that the inanimate nouns have their own set of plural (-all) and absentative singular (-e) suffixes.


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#19 May-20-2014 12:15:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 4: PARTICLES


In this lesson, we will deal with the Lenape particle.

Along with "pre-nouns" and "pre-verbs" (future lessons), "particles" are generally repeated more often, in speaking and writing, than any particular nouns or verbs. Particles have NO gender, nor do they take any suffixes other than, on occasion, the "future marker" ["-tsch"]. The best way to remember them is to memorize them through use. Therefore, this lesson is more of a lesson in vocabulary building than grammar.

Here is a list of the most common particles, in Northern Unami. There are others, but these are the ones most frequently encountered.

NUMBERS

n'gutti ['one']; nischa ['two']; nacha ['three']; newo ['four']; palenachk ['five']; guttasch ['six']; nischaasch ['seven']; chaasch ['eight']; peschgonk ['nine']; m'tellen ['ten'].

QUANTITY & QUALITY

nukti ['the only one']; alende ['some']; tangitti ['a little']; kechitti ['little']; chweli ['many' / 'much'].

TEMPORALITY

abtschi ['always']; n'geemewi ['constantly']; haschi ['ever']; tamse ['sometimes']; metschi ['already'] /  juke or juque ['now']; neke ['lately']; pecho ['soon']; likhicqui ['at the time']; medchi ['as soon as'] / wtenk ['after']; tschinge ['when']; nall ['then' / 'at last'].

LOCALITY

allami ['within' / 'underneath']; kotschemunk ['outdoors']; talli ['in' / 'there']; gamink ['on the other side of the water']; wewundachkwi ['on both sides']; undach ['here']; icka or ika ['there'].

CONJUNCTIONS & PREPOSITIONS

woak ['and' / 'also']; emba ['also']; schitta ['or']; schuk ['but' / 'only']; ihiabtschi ['yet']; alod ['yet']; quonna ['although']; ili ['still'' / 'even']; nachpene ['even']; li ['to' / 'towards']; taat ['as if']; elgiqui ['like as'] / n'tite ['for']; n'titechquo ['because']; aike ['the same'].

POSITIVES

e-e ['yeah']; gohan ['yes']; kehella ['indeed' / 'aye' / 'surely']; lakella ['O yes!']; bischi ['indeed' / 'to be sure'].

NEGATIVES

atta or 'ta ['no' / 'not']; matta ['no' / 'not']; tagu ['no' / 'not']; attagu ['no' / 'not']; esquo ['not yet']; nesquo ['not yet'].

POSSIBILITY

a or aam ['could' / 'should' / 'would']; eet or piteet ['maybe' / 'perhaps']; gachene ['if' / 'whether'].

GRATITUDE

anischi ['Thank you']; anischik ['Thank you']; ulewe ['Thanks!'].

INTERJECTIONS

wo ['Oh!']; hoh ['Wonderful!']; ekih [O, woe!]; gissa [exclamation of indignance].

INTERROGATORY

ta ['where?' / 'how?']; keku or koecu ['what?']; ha or hatsch ['it is asked']; quatsch ['why'].

Another "ta" is often used as an "emphatic" particle. It is employed solely to provide emphasis to what is being said or written--it has no real 'meaning.'  I suppose it could be rendered as 'definitely!'

Next time we will cover the Lenape "prenouns" and "preverbs."


Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#20 May-20-2014 12:29:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI) LANGUAGE LESSONS
BY RAYMOND WHRITENOUR

Copyright © 2014 by Raymond Whritenour


LESSON 5: PRENOUNS AND PREVERBS


In this lesson we will deal with the Lenape prenouns and preverbs.

PRENOUNS

When used, prenouns are ALWAYS placed before the noun whose meaning they enhance. They are the Lenape parts-of-speech which most closely correspond to the English words called "adjectives." Here are some examples of prenouns preceding nouns:

esseni temagan = a "stony path"

chinqui m'hittuk = a "big tree"

assisskuwiwi maksenall = "muddy shoes"

wuski nehenajungesak = "new horses"

achtschippi lenno = a "strange man"

namesiwi shammeu = "fish oil"

You get the idea. Note that prenouns DO NOT change form for a singular or plural noun. Nor does gender (or any other modification except possession) change their form ["lenni minall" = 'common huckleberries' & "lenni lennapewak" = 'common human beings'].

Prenouns DO take "possessive" pronoun prefixes. That is to say, when a "possessed" noun is preceded by a prenoun, the pronoun prefix goes in front of BOTH the prenoun AND the noun. These forms are EXTREMELY RARE because there are verbal expressions which express the same thoughts, and these verbal expressions are usually employed. However, when used, the "possessive" prenoun-plus-noun forms look like this (IN MISSION DELAWARE (NORTHERN UNAMI), ONLY):

n'dallowelemuwi n'damementit = "my precious infant"

k'moqui knachk = "your (sg.) bloody hand"

mechi wtaptonaganuwawall = "their important words"

PREVERBS

When used, preverbs are ALWAYS placed before the verb whose meaning they enhance, though there may be one or more intervening words between the preverb and verb. (This will be covered in the lessons on verbs.)

Preverbs are the Lenape parts-of-speech which often correspond to the English words called "adverbs," but other English parts-of-speech are also included.  In this lesson, we intend no more than to become acquainted with some of the most frequently used preverbs.  Some are:

enda = "when" or "where"

eli = "as," "because," "how," or "what"

gatta = "want to"

apui = "easily"

elgiqui = "like as"

sami = "exceedingly"

endchi = "as much as"

endchen = "as many times as"

wuntschi = "thereof" or "thereby" or "from" or "of"

wuli = "well" or "good"

wingi = "likes" or "willingly"

schingi = "hates" or "unwillingly"

Some preverbs take pronoun prefixes ["wtenda" - 'when he'].  Some are found with the future marker added on to them.  And, those with "short initial vowels" undergo an initial vowel change in certain MODES of the CONJUNCT ORDER.  But, a complete discussion of these matters is best left for the next set of lessons.

We have now covered every Lenape part-of-speech EXCEPT the verb.  So, the "easy" part of this course is now over! 

Raymond Whritenour
LENAPE TEXTS & STUDIES

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#21 May-21-2014 10:52:am

tree hugger
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Posts: 11146

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

We have now covered every Lenape part-of-speech EXCEPT the verb.  So, the "easy" part of this course is now over!

neutral

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#22 May-21-2014 12:37:pm

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

big_smile

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#23 May-21-2014 05:09:pm

Suckachsinheet
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Registered: Sep-11-2007
Posts: 980

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

Indeed, it does get more sticky from here... I have yet to run a translation past sschkaak that doesn't require many corrections.

Last edited by Suckachsinheet (May-21-2014 05:09:pm)


It's in the blood; I can't let go. - Robbie Robertson

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#24 May-23-2014 11:34:am

djsorg
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Registered: May-11-2014
Posts: 2

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

These Northern Unami lessons are a treasure.  I hope Raymond will post the entire series.

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#25 May-23-2014 11:55:am

sschkaak
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Registered: Sep-17-2007
Posts: 4439

Re: Delaware (Northern Unami) Language Lessons

I intend to post all the lessons.  I might post the quizzes and exercises, afterwards--BUT, I won't be grading any papers!  Had enough of that.   lol

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